disease and can lead to pulmonary hypertension and deaths/s can include: dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, cough with hemoptysis, prominent jugular venous pulse, pulm edema (later stages), diastolic murmur may be heard, irregular rhythmEchocardiogram for diagnosisTreatment: same as CHF, prevention of exacerbations
Mitral RegurgitationWhen blood flows back into the left atrium through the mitral valve upon left ventricular systole (when it contracts)Symptoms can include: fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, palpitations, cough, systolic murmur heard, arrhythmiaConfirmed with echocardiogramMitral valve can be replaced if neededTreatment: same as CHF patient
MVP (Mitral Valve Prolapse)When one of the leaflets of the mitral valve stretch too far back into the atrium which causes it to be unable to close effectivelyCan be asymptomatic but if symptomatic, these s/s include:Fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, anxietyIn extreme cases, the valve can fold inward too far and cause sudden deathA systolic click is heard and sometimesa regurgitation of blood can be heardEducation is key: s/s, BP management
Aortic Stenosis, Aortic RegurgitationAortic StenosisA narrowing of the aortic valve opening. Aortic stenosis restricts the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and may also affect the pressure in the left atrium.Aortic RegurgitationLeakage of the aortic valve each time the left ventricle relaxes. A leaking (or regurgitant) aortic valve allows blood to flow in two directions
Valvular DisordersEducation: • The disease process and the possibility of HF• Drug therapy is dependent on which valve is effected and any treatments to the valve. Meds include: diuretics, vasodilators, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, antibiotics, and anticoagulants• The prophylactic use of antibiotics before invasive dental work• A plan of activity and rest to conserve energy•High risk for infective endocarditis•Inform all healthcare providers of heart valve issues
Infective EndocarditisInfection of the heart’s inner lining or the heart valvesCommonly caused by infection in mouth that spread, valve replacement surgery, & IV drug useCan lead to HF, embolization, TIA/strokeS/S: fever with chills, night sweats, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, murmur, positive blood culture, leads to HF if untreatedTesting: blood culture, Transesophogeal Echocardiogram (TEE)Treatment: antibiotics long-term, valve replacement
CardiomyopathyThree main types: Dilated, Hypertrophic, RestrictiveDilated (most common)-the heart chambers dilate (expand) and can no longer contract properly, leading to systolic HF.S/S: dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, palpitationsHypertrophic-progressive thickening of ventricular muscle mass and septal walls that increases pulmonary and venous pressure. S/S: dyspnea on exertion, syncope, dizziness, palpitations•Restrictive(lest common)-walls of ventricles become rigid an can’t relax (don’t stretch) and don’t fill adequately. Causes diastolic HF. Size of heart is normal.