disease and can lead to pulmonary hypertension and death ss can include dyspnea

Disease and can lead to pulmonary hypertension and

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disease and can lead to pulmonary hypertension and death s/s can include: dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, cough with hemoptysis, prominent jugular venous pulse, pulm edema (later stages), diastolic murmur may be heard, irregular rhythm Echocardiogram for diagnosis Treatment: same as CHF, prevention of exacerbations
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Mitral Regurgitation When blood flows back into the left atrium through the mitral valve upon left ventricular systole (when it contracts) Symptoms can include: fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, palpitations, cough, systolic murmur heard, arrhythmia Confirmed with echocardiogram Mitral valve can be replaced if needed Treatment: same as CHF patient
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MVP (Mitral Valve Prolapse) When one of the leaflets of the mitral valve stretch too far back into the atrium which causes it to be unable to close effectively Can be asymptomatic but if symptomatic, these s/s include: Fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, anxiety In extreme cases, the valve can fold inward too far and cause sudden death A systolic click is heard and sometimes a regurgitation of blood can be heard Education is key: s/s, BP management
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Aortic Stenosis, Aortic Regurgitation Aortic Stenosis A narrowing of the aortic valve opening. Aortic stenosis restricts the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and may also affect the pressure in the left atrium. Aortic Regurgitation Leakage of the aortic valve each time the left ventricle relaxes. A leaking (or regurgitant) aortic valve allows blood to flow in two directions
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Valvular Disorders Education: • The disease process and the possibility of HF • Drug therapy is dependent on which valve is effected and any treatments to the valve. Meds include: diuretics, vasodilators, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, antibiotics, and anticoagulants • The prophylactic use of antibiotics before invasive dental work • A plan of activity and rest to conserve energy High risk for infective endocarditis Inform all healthcare providers of heart valve issues
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Infective Endocarditis Infection of the heart’s inner lining or the heart valves Commonly caused by infection in mouth that spread, valve replacement surgery, & IV drug use Can lead to HF, embolization, TIA/stroke S/S: fever with chills, night sweats, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, murmur, positive blood culture, leads to HF if untreated Testing: blood culture, Transesophogeal Echocardiogram (TEE) Treatment: antibiotics long-term, valve replacement
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Cardiomyopathy Three main types: Dilated, Hypertrophic, Restrictive Dilated (most common)- the heart chambers dilate (expand) and can no longer contract properly, leading to systolic HF. S/S : dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, palpitations Hypertrophic - progressive thickening of ventricular muscle mass and septal walls that increases pulmonary and venous pressure. S/S: dyspnea on exertion, syncope, dizziness, palpitations Restrictive (lest common)- walls of ventricles become rigid an can’t relax (don’t stretch) and don’t fill adequately. Causes diastolic HF. Size of heart is normal.
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  • Fall '19
  • systolic heart failure, diastolic heart failure,  S,  Fatigue, Arterial

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