by MX villagers CHANGED after RR brings commercial ranching/farming sale of communal landholdings, dominance of just 20 families
SUBJUGATION OF THE PLAINS INDIANS It’s their FUCKING DOOOOOOM after West integrated into national economy in 1700s, intro of horse already hurt Plains Indians as Indians migrated to Plains to take advantage of new hunting methods of bison via horse tribal warfare as settlers encroach on Indian land in GP, bloody conflict 1869 Grant’s peace policy did little, Civil War generals do TOTAL WARFARE (basically) against Indians Extinction of buffalo herds (hunted for hides) “LET ME BE A FREE MAN” 1877 troops by O.O. Howard pursue the Nez Perce Indians on 1700-mile chase o Wanted to escape to Canada, but removed to Oklahoma 2 years later, Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph delivers speech in front of President Hayes o Condemns policy of reservations, POWERFUL language of freedom/equal rights o Still, US gov just moves Nez Perce from OK to Washington reservation Some Indian victories like 1876 Little Bighorn o Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeat white armies o Sitting Bull imprisoned in 1881, then released after 1883 to become part of Wild West show Comanche Indians in New Mexico/Colorado were broken, too REMAKING INDIAN LIFE Majority of Americans believe fed gov should make Plains Indians surrender land and assimilate 1871 – Congress eliminates treaty era (since 1770s) o Tribes are NO LONGER treated as independent nations no more tribal sovereignty from gov o Makes it easier for western RR construction o Bureau of Indian Affairs = establish boarding schools for Indian children, removed from parents, dressed and assimilated to white ways THE DAWES ACT (1887) Named after Senator Henry Dawes (Massachusetts) Breaks up land of nearly ALL tribes into small parcels, distribute to Indian families o Remainder auctioned off to white purchasers Indians who accept and assimilate become American citizens DAWES ACT IS DISASTER loss of tribal land and destruction of Indian traditions Whites benefitted enormously, though whites actually get more land than Indians, LAND RUSHES INDIAN CITIZENSHIP Many laws/treaties offer Indians right to become American citizen if they leave tribe and assimilate o FEW accept these offers (why tf would I leave my customs) FEW become citizens Supreme Court ( Elk v. Wilkins 1884) Citizenship rules of 14 th /15 th Amendments do NOT apply to Indians o Court questioned if any Indian is “civilized enough” to be a Citizen Gradual citizenship of Indians, but mostly in 1919 and 1924 all Indians become Citizens THE GHOST DANCE AND WOUNDED KNEE Ghost Dance = Indian religious revitalization campaign, predict day of NO more whites, buffalo return, and Indians can re-practice lost customs o Lots of Indians gather for celebration, but fed gov sends troops (scared!!!!) Between 1865 – 1890, 8 new western states entered the Union.
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