ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning

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Classical conditioning is a type of conditioning where an individual responds to some stimulus that would not invariably produce such a response.This theory, created by Ivan Pavlov , grew out of experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. Using the paired stimuli, one compelling and the other one neutral, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus, and takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus. In other words, classical conditioning is where a certain stimulus results in a response it doesn't normally generate. InPavlov's experiment, every time he gave the dog food, he rang a bell. Eventually, whenever he rang the bell, the dog would salivate--even if there was no food. It had been classically conditioned to associate salivating (normally associated with the stimulus of food), with the stimulus of a bell ringing. Classical conditioning is apparent in an organizational setting. For example, at one manufacturing plant, every time the top executives were scheduled to visit, the plant management would clean up the administrative offices and wash the windows. Eventually, employees would turn on their best behavior whenever the windows were cleaned. Operant conditioning is a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. This theory, developed by B.F. Skinner , argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. People learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don’t want. Skinner argued that by creating pleasing consequences to follow specific forms of behavior, the frequency of that behavior will increase. If a behavior fails to be positively reinforced, the probability that the behavior will be repeated declines. The Social-learning theory states that people can learn through observation and direct experience. Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. While this theory is an extension of operant conditioning, it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and
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the importance of perception in learning. People respond to how they perceive and define consequences, not to the objective consequences themselves. Because learning takes place on the job as well as prior to it, managers are concerned with how they can teach employees to behave in ways that most benefit the organization. When we attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps, we are shaping behavior. Behavior is shaped by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response. If an employee who has chronically been a half hour late for work comes in only 20 minutes late, the improvement can be reinforced. Reinforcement would increase as responses more closely approximate the desired behavior.
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