reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars (have to learn.. ex: money) Add Remove Pleasant Positive reinforcement : candy Negative punishment/punishmen t by removal : grounded Unpleasan t Positive punishment/punishmen t by application : spanking Negative reinforcement: nagging Reinforce behavior Punish behavior • Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement: interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
• Variable interval schedule of reinforcement: the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event • Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement: number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same • Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement: schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event • Punishment: any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again • Punishment by application: the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus • Punishment by removal: the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus • Severe punishment – may cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished – may encourage lying to avoid punishment – creates fear and anxiety 1. Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish. 2. Punishment should be consistent. 3. Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior. • Discriminative stimulus: any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
• Shaping: reinforcement of simple steps, leading to a desired complex behavior • Successive approximation: small steps, one after another, that lead to a particular goal behavior • Extinction occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced. • One way to deal with a child’s temper tantrum is to ignore it; lack of reinforcement for the tantrum behavior will eventually result in extinction • Operantly conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similar—not identical—to the original stimulus • Spontaneous recovery (reoccurrence of a once- extinguished response) also happens in operant conditioning • Instinctive drift: tendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns – Each animal comes into the world (and the laboratory) with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior already in place. – These instincts differ from species to species. – There are some responses that simply cannot be trained into an animal regardless of conditioning.