IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

The iea has also carried out a worldwide study on

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The IEA has also carried out a worldwide study on using EV batteries for mitigation of renewable energy output variations. If EV batteries are used for time shift and smoothing of short-term fluctuations by using vehicle-to- grid (V2G) technology, the EES needed can be decreased from 189 GW to 122 GW or from 305 GW to 280 GW in the two scenarios (see section 4.2.4). If these capacities are used in the future, grid operators will have more scope for short-term time shift and a higher level of security of supply can be guaranteed.
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72 S E C T I O N 4 Forecast of EES market potential by 2030 A field where development is needed is the reinforcement of the low-voltage power grid, whose infrastructure is not yet ready for the power feed-in of a large number of electric vehicles – the grid’s limited transmission capacity would be overstretched. For the communication between vehicles and grid operators an intelligent system will also be needed, one acceptable to the consumer. Consumer acceptance will play a major role in the success of the V2G concept. Different business models are under discussion, e.g. one where the car owner is not the owner of the battery but rents or leases it, or pays for the electricity at a rate which covers the battery cost. 4.4 EES market potential in the future Several studies on market potential have been mentioned in this section; they have suggested the following conclusions. 1) The potential market for EES in the future is much larger than the existing market, mainly driven by the extended use of renewable energy sources and the transformation of the energy sector, including new applications such as electric mobility. The market volume is related to the (future) renewable energy ratio and varies among regions. 2) If further cost reductions and technology improvement can be achieved, EES systems will be widely deployed, for example, to shift the demand, smooth renewable energy output and improve the efficiency of existing power generation. 3) European studies indicate huge expectations for EES technologies to compensate for the fluctuation of renewable energy power output. Large installations of wind turbines and PVs may require numerous EES systems, capable of discharging electricity for periods from two hours up to one day. Hence the market for conventional large-scale EES, such as PHS and adiabatic CAES, is attractive. But in many countries such as Germany and Japan the future potential of PHS and CAES is very limited due to the lack of suitable locations or underground formations. 4) The extensive introduction of electrochemical EES such as NaS, Li-ion and RFB in the MW - MWh range is expected, for discharge times of hours to days. 5) Long-term energy storage is essential to achieving very high renewable energy ratios. The IEA report shows that further installation of renewable energy will lead to an insufficiency of thermal power generators for power control, and cause short-time output fluctuations. This scenario may be expected in Western Europe and China which have both set high renewable-energy- penetration targets.
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