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this topic are definitely good for society. One of the most eye-opening sources on childhood stress comes from the Kaiser-Permenante Study that defined 10 “adverse childhood experiences” that traumatize children. Known as ACES, this work has been the foundation for many outreach programs in education circles (Fuller-Thompson, 2016). Of course public awareness has also been expanded as victims, such as Dave Pelzer, who described excruciatingly painful instances of abuse at the hands of his mentally ill mother, have made their stories known (Pelzer, 1995). Experts such as Bruce Perry, through popular books such as The Boy who was Raised as aDoghave also reported on case studies of abused children and the effects that lasted well into adulthood (Perry, 2007).Why do adults abuse children? Although the causes can be many, a major precursor is an individual’s abuse suffered during his or her own childhood. Research has shown that children who are abused frequently grow up to hurt their own kids. This may be due to fact that parenting skills are learned; people imitate what they see and experience. In a psychoanalytic sense, abusing one’s own child may be a way of taking retribution on one’s abuser; in a sick form of transference, the adult becomes the abuser to grab the power he was deprived of as a helpless child. Socioeconomic factors can
contribute to feelings of frustration and anger which can be expressed when disciplining one’s child. Parents who abuse alcohol or other drugs that impair their reasoning can also create “monsters” that hurt, even when a mom or dad might never think of being aggressive when sober. People who become parents early in life may not yet have the skills, let alone the support, to raise their children; kids having kids can result in parents ill-equipped to handle their baby’s constant demands, so they lash out in anger.Bruce Perry (1998), studies childhood abuse almost exclusively, and he stresses how ignorance and immaturity can contribute to fragile situations that breed aggression. Some adults, unfortunately, are pedophiles who not only find children sexually attractive but do not have control over these emotions, acting out their fantasies on young kids. And some abuse, especially emotional, is inflicted out of ignorance. Some grown-ups still don’t understand how harsh words, criticism, and mocking tones can hurt the fragile psychological make-up of a child.The most obvious effect of any of these types of abuse is physical. Children can be injured, sometimes fatally, by a parent’s blows or pushes. Bones can break and brains can be concussed. The smaller the child, the more vulnerable his or her body is. Today everyone who works closely with children are “Mandated Reporters,” compelled by law to report any signs of potential abuse such as unusual bruises, cuts, and burns. The emotional and psychological effects are much harder to recognize, but often much slower to heal. When we consider Erikson’s psychosocial stages, we can readily see how abuses can cause a child to develop on the negative side of his “crises.” A baby who is shaken and