O mate promiscuously confuse paternity o synchronize

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o Mate promiscuously – confuse paternity o Synchronize estrous – break male monopolization o Associate with 1 male and guarantee paternity for protection 10.19.2010 Primate affiliation, aggression and cultural behavior Aggression and dominance - We need to define a few characteristic primate behaviors o Fighting – the obvious. May or may not involve contact o Competition – struggle for any resource Agonistic – aggressive, hostile Non-agonistic – passive, or non hostile Escalation – change from peaceful to hostile competition and conflict Dominance hierarchy “Pecking order” - Measured by who wins and looses fights, or by displacement - Way of resolving conflict without incurring the cost of conflict every time - Males – typically show linear agonistic hierarchy in competition for mating o A>B>C>D - Top male is called alpha, next beta - Position can change over time - Top male usually has “priority of access” to receptive females - Females – compete for resources usually o Where resources ae patchy or scarce, they often form kin-based matrilineal dominance hierarchies o A>B>C>D all descended from female A o a>b>c>d all descended from female a Altruism – providing a benefit to another individual so that you incur some cost to yourself - long time problem for evolutionary theory - based on kin- hence “kin selection” o help your relatives to the degree that you each share the same genes o hence it is selfish behavior from the viewpoint of genetics Reciprocal altruism – provide a benefit in expectation of a return later Coalition – more than one individual acting together in competition with others - altruistic – basis for matrilineal dominance hierarchy - male-coalitions – temporary cooperation by males to overthrow a dominant o usually break up as soon as opponent is beaten territoriality - defense of an area from others of the same species - core area – area of crucial resources that is defended without exception - females are territorial when resources are scarce or patchy - males are territorial in defending females - chimps make war tool use - involves conscious effort of planning, not instinctive - learned behavior that can be modified
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- chimps – termite sticks, leaf wads, stone hammers, galago prods - orangutans – stick pry-bars for opening fruit culture - learned behavior that is transmitted and not necessarily adaptive McGrew’s criteria for culture - innovation – new pattern of modified behavior - dissemination – behavior is learned from inventor - standardization – behavior is consistent among individuals - durability – behavior done without the demonstrator - diffusion – behavior spreads to other groups - tradition – behavior is passed across generations - non-subsistence – behavior is not essential to survival - naturalness – behavior has to develop in absence of human influence 10.21.2010 Lanuage - type of symbolism - symbols are concepts - involves abstract concepts - human genetic adaptation o changes in brain structure eg. Wernicke’s area – perception of speech
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