Phoenicians had been the leading sea merchants in the

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Phoenicians- had been the leading sea merchants in the Mediterranean until the Greek ships were able to compete with them. Also the Greeks borrowed a great deal of their alphabet from them. Basileus- in the early dark age it meant a more minor official like mayor or head of a village in a Mycenaean kingdom but later translates to mean king. Oikos- land rich households, who were able to acquire more and better land, therefore transforming themselves into an aristocracy of landowners. Homer and Hesiod- first is the greatest greek poet who wrote the illiad and odyssey. Greeks know nothing about his life except that he was blind and from Ionia (an oral poet). Second is also a writer, who people questioned if he was real or not (and if that even mattered.) Dorian Invasion- later Greeks believed that Dorians who were people from the north, came in and started battles but archaeological evidence doesn’t match up with literary dates. Geometric Greece-around 900 BC a new artistic and aesthetic spirit appeared in architecture, with new shapes and decorative features. Circles, semi circles, zones and zigzags were big. The Late geometric period (750-700) was based on the new pottery which was previously imageless and now depicted people, animals and entire scenes. Archaic Period- from 700 to 480, which was a time of population growth, increased trade and colonization, creation of Panhellenic shrines, festivals and oracles. Brought new forms of literary, artistic and intellectual expression and fostered a sense of common Greek identity. Polis- an area comprised of a central city and its adjacent territory (city-state), which together make up a single, self-governing political unit. Hoplite Phalanx- a new type of military organization that began in 650, where the soldiers were arranged in tightly packed formations. Battles were ferocious affairs but
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were also relatively short, had few casualties and were seen as civilized. Synoecism- the political unification process that unified separate demos (territories and their people). Refers to both separate communities forming one political union and the actual movement of people into a new composite settlement. Metropolis- the mother polis, which had to choose a site for a colony, get divine approval for that colony, plan the settlement and choose its founders, when they were trying to expand and colonize. The relationship between mother city and new polis was very close, combining economic, political and spiritual ties. Tyranny- the first challenge to oligarchy, which occurred when elite members of society, who lacked legitimacy, would rise up and take control. They gained support through personal achievements in their poleis, feuding between aristocratic factions, and their appeal to the poor. Aristocrats spread bad propaganda about the practice, because it threatened general freedom, but the lower class liked them because they were already so bitter towards the aristocrats. Tyrants improved the cities physically, which provided jobs for the poor and they never lasted longer than 2 or 3 generations.
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