neighbour may be someone from a different cultural boundary altogether. Superstition is also de-emphasized in the urban centres, inter-ethnic, inter-tribal and inter-state marriages are occurring at increasing rates in Nigerian cities than in the rural areas. Polygamy, which in the not too distant past, used to be a measure of affluence and status is no longer in vogue. One of the greatest changes in family life is in the area of extended family network where ties have become weakened partly because of economic realities, distance and different geographical mobility. Changes in family and home life include rising trends in divorce rates, single parenting, children studying far away from homes, reduction in the number of children a family wants and the provision of insurance for other members of the family. These changes create a need for counselors to help children cope with these changes. (i) Problems of Cultism Cultism activities have been in Nigeria institutions since its inception. The dimensions it’s taken these days are more pathetic and worrisome. Many students are these days’ members of one secret cult or the other and the level of what they do is fearful. They kill, maim and destroy. These negative tendencies in the societies and cults activities need to be exposed to individual through guidance activities.
EDU 421 FUNDAMENTALS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING 17Self-Assessment Exercise: What are the developmental needs of the youths according to Durojaiye (1976)? For the answers see page 14. 4.0CONCLUSION Guidance and Counseling activities should therefore be based on the need and total development of every person. It is the duty of all personnel in a setting to identify the needs of individual so that programme activities can be designed to meet such needs. 5.0SUMMARY This unit has exposed the basic principles guiding the practice of guidance and counseling and also reasons for the need for guidance and counseling in the school system. This background has prepared you for the next unit where you will read about its historical development both in America and in Nigeria. 6.0TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Discuss why Nigeria needs Guidance and Counseling in the educational system. 2. What are the basic principles of guidance? Using your own words, describe the key aspects of guidance services. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Akinade, E. A., Sokan, B. O., Oseremen N. (1986). Introduction to Guidance and Counseling: A Basic Text for Colleges and Universities. Ibadan: Caltep. Idowu, A. I. (Ed) (1998). Guidance and Counseling in Education. Ilorin: Indemac. Kolo, F. D. (1992). Guidance and Counseling in Perspective Zaria: Sleveno Printing. Makinde, O. (1983). Fundamental of Guidance and Counseling. London: Macmillan. Okon, S. E. (1984). Guidance for the 6-3-3-4 System of Education. Zaria; Institute of Education.
EDU 421 FUNDAMENTALS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING 18 Olayinka, M. S. (1972). The Role of Guidance and Vocational Counseling in Nigerian Education. University of Lagos.
EDU 421 FUNDAMENTALS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING 19UNIT 3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING CONTENTS 1.0