This might explain what happened in the xerox story

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and morale often takes a nosedive after some successes, or when the leader moves on. This might explain what happened in the Xerox story (see case in Chapter 5). Applying Motivation Theories to TQ As an example of how the Porter and Lawler model might apply in TQ, suppose that a bank decides to install a statistical process control system in its check-clearing department. It performs the activities of planning the new system, organizing the workforce, and training employees to use the new system. The bank even trains clerical workers in the details of recording information clearly and accurately. However, the bank emphasizes the detection of errors, the penalties for being caught making an error, and the advantages to the bank in reducing the costs necessitated by having to correct errors. No positive reinforcement is built into the system for making improvements in the process, reducing errors, or recording and using information. A few weeks after the system is installed, turnover and absentee rates have increased, new types of errors are being made, old error rates are increasing, and morale in the department is generally low. For this situation, the Herzberg content model would indicate that the motivating factors of status and the work (content) itself are missing. The Porter and Lawler process
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model could be used to trace out the flaws in the motivating process. The model shows that the bank‘s system has a deficiency in perceived effort -reward probability and, perhaps, value of reward as well. Thus, if employees do not perceive a high effort-reward probability or do not see a high value in the rewards that are given, they will not apply their best efforts to the task. Their abilities and traits will not be exercised to the fullest, and their perceptions of their role in the firm will be either negative or confused. These factors combine to result in low performance, which, in turn, will have a negative impact on extrinsic (tangible) rewards and intrinsic (intangible) rewards and on the perception of equitable (fair) rewards and overall satisfaction with accomplishment of the task. The negative cycle and its consequences are renewed each time the task is performed. To turn the situation around, companies must introduce an upward rather than a downward spiral of motivation by providing a positive combination of expectancy, effort, and accomplishment. In this example, the value of the reward (Box 1 in the Porter and Lawler model in Figure 1), and the perceived effort-reward probability (Box 2) work in conjunction with intrinsic rewards, extrinsic rewards, and perceived equitable rewards (Boxes 7A, 7B, and 8) to produce motivated effort (Box 3), performance (Box 6), and satisfaction (Box 9). Thus, the attention to the details of job design can have a significant impact on the quality level in a work setting. Bowditch and Buono suggested that an integrated theory of motivation, such as that under development with social learning/self efficacy theories, could be developed by considering the types of behavior in a group of people that are of interest to management.
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