KARA - Immunology Exam 4 - Chapter 7 & 8.docx

Peptides derived from the degradation of bacterial

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Peptides derived from the degradation of bacterial protein in the dendritic cells vesicular system are bound by MHC class II molecules presented on the DC’s surface. Activation of naïve T cells CD28 binding to B7 along with peptide:MHC complexes binding to TCR and co-receptor binding. Slide 95 | Macrophages in lymph nodes have different functions Macrophages are found throughout the lymph node tissue and have several different functions: Are phagocytic cells that take up microbes and particles from the extracellular environment. Degrade microorganism in phagolysosomes that are loaded with hydrolytic enzymes. Trap and degrade pathogens this enables macrophages to process and present antigen to prevent infection from reaching blood . Prevents noninfectious particulates from lymph nodes from entering blood and blocking small blood vessels. Remove and degrade lymphocytes that die in secondary lymphoid tissues . Slide 96 | Third Type of P-APC B cell Ig binds specific antigen from extracellular environment.
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Ag:Ig complex internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis transported to endocytic vesicles degraded into peptides peptides bind MHC class II molecules peptide:MHC class II complex transported to cell surface In the primary immune response, the naïve B-cells are activated by effector T-cells that were activated in the same secondary lymphoid tissue. Slide 97 | Signals from TCR and co-receptors alter the pattern of gene transcription in activated T cells. The signal that antigen has bound the TCR is transmitted by the cytoplasmic tails of CD3 chains , associated with the TCR - & β -chains . CD3 cytoplasmic tails contain sequences called immunoreceptor tyrosine- based activation motifs (ITAMs), which associate with cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases . Kinases are activated by receptor clustering and phosphorylate ITAM tyrosine residues. Enzymes and other signaling molecules bind to the phosphorylated tyrosine residues and become activated. Pathways of intracellular signaling are initiated to effect alterations in gene expression . Slides 98-99 | Clustering of the TCR and a co-receptor initiates signaling within the T cell Slide 98 ↓ | c-SMAC - Central supramolecular activation complex Allows clustering of receptors-co-receptors and signaling molecules p-SMAC - peripheral supramolecular activation complex Adhesion molecules – forms tight seal Slide 99 ↓ |
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Slide 100 | Signaling pathways initiated by the T-cell receptor complex, its CD4 co-receptor and CD28 Slides 101-102 | Proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells are driven by the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) Slide 101 ↓ |
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In the previous slide, you saw that gene expression would be changed.
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  • Winter '17
  • GREGORYWEIGEL
  • T Cells, T Cell, development of T cells

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