Fixations of ribs in an respiratory position

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Fixations of ribs in an respiratory position, increased anterior-posterior  diameter of the thorax (barrel chest) Flattened diaphragm (on radiographs) Advanced emphysema and loss of tissue Damaged alveoli coalesce form large air spaces Pneumothorax- pleural membrane blebs ruptures Hypercapnia becomes marked Hypoxia is the respiratory drive Pulmonary HTN/ cor pulmonale in late stage Signs & Symptoms Dyspnea- occurs first on exertion, hyperventilation, prolonged expiratory  phase (barrow chest) Anorexia and fatigue, weight loss, clubbed fingers Bronchitis- Smoking/irritants cause this then the irritants cause a inflammatory response and then the mucus and goblet glands hypertrophy and thus create more mucus- Cough
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with mucus sputum- the mucus glands (goblet glands) actually increase the mucus if it comes often enough it also will change the structure of the alveoli and the tissues in there is signs of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) To help them use bronchodilators, fluids (help liquefy the mucus and cough them up) sitting them up COPD: Chronic Bronchitis Inflammation, obstruction, repeated infection, chronic coughing twice for 3  months or longer in 2 years- Usually a history of cigarette smoking or living in  urban or industrial areas Mucosa inflamed and swollen Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus glands Fibrosis and thickening of bronchia wall Low oxygen levels Severe dyspnea and fatigue Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale Signs & Symptoms Constant productive cough Tachypnea and shortness of breath Frequent think and purulent secretions Cough and rhonchi more severe in the morning Hypoxia, cyanosis, hypercapia- due to airway obstruction Polycythemia, weight loss, and signs of cor pulmonale possible as vascular  damage and pulmonary hypertension progresses Treatment Cessation of smoking and reduction or exposure to irritants Treatment of infection Vaccination for prophylaxis Expectorants and bronchodilators Appropriate chest therapy- postural drainage and percussion Low-flow oxygen Nutritional supplements Pulmonary Edema - fluid collection in the alveoli and interstitial space – you give diuretics to fix this--- the cause is usually the hearts that isn’t pumping the fluids adequately Pulmonary Edema Fluid collection in alveoli and interstitial area Can result from many primary conditions Reduces amount of oxygen diffusing into blood Interferes with lung expansion May develop when Inflammation in the lungs is present which increases permeability of the  capillaries Plasma protein levels are low which decreases osmotic pressure of plasma
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Pulmonary hypertension develops Signs & Symptoms Cough, orthopnea, rales- in mild cases Hemoptysis Frothy, blood-tinged sputum
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