Criminology Lecture Notes3

Explains why people become delinquents in association

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Explains why people become delinquents – in association with other groups, picking up definitions with regards to the law; at end, can count up how many definitions unfavorable to the law and how many favorable to the law . Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity . Can give different weights to different definitions that a person learns – those definitions that are learned first will carry more weight than those learned later – care what mother says more than friends . The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti- criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning . People become criminals in the same way that people become anything else – criminals are studying/learning crime, . No special process that criminals go through . It’s about the content of what people learn . Criminal patterns -- learning crime . Anti criminal patterns – learning conformity
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. People have learned to conform or commit crime, which explains the different behavior of different groups in the same situation . While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values . (Needs, values, anomie, strain, disorganization, etc.) crime . (Needs, values, anomie, strain, disorganization, etc.) conformity . See all of these things leading to both criminal behavior and conformity as well Lecture 3/26/2012 . Sykes and Matza: The Neutralization of Guilt . Sutherland – definitions unfavorable to the law (extremely vague) . More concrete examples of these kinds of definitions – ideas in which individuals evoke in their minds, which deal with problem of guilt – GUILT ASSOCIATED WITH CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR . Individual feels guilt before and during committing the act . Found within mainstream culture of middle class values . Differential Association (Sutherland and Cressey) . Proposition 4: . When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes: (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes . Delinquent value system . Delinquent/Subterranean Values . Excitement, Thrills, Kicks . Drifting and Grandiose Dreams, Conspicuous Consumption . Aimless drifting – no goals, just hanging out on street corners . Conspicuous consumption: buying things to command respect (ex. Jewelry, brand name clothes, pimped up cars, etc.) . Aggressiveness and Violence . Violence among boys . Mainstream Middle-Class values . Discipline, Routine, Standardization . Like security, regularity (do things the same everyday), we love our boring lives . Protestant Ethic . Max Weber – in Protestantism, people found the motivation to work hard, and because of the hard work, the capitalist economy got moving – we inherited the protestant ethic . Goal oriented . Asceticism – working hard demands saving money – Protestant ethic encourages frugality, saving your money for success . Middle class people have more restrained tastes .
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