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Job Design. This involves the planning of the job, including its contents, themethods of performing the job, and how it relates to other jobs in the organi-zation. Job design method can follow two approaches. The classical approachinvolves structuring the task activities to make full use of the division of laborand specialization. This job engineering is still a popular job design strategy.The second approach involves changing the job to make it satisfying. This iscalled job enrichment.Herzberg’s two-factor theory provided real impetus to job enrichment (Herz-berg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Herzberg’s approach to job enrichmentinvolves improvement of the motivation factors, such as achievement, recogni-tion, responsibility, advancement, and opportunity for growth. This approach isbased on the assumption that job enrichment increases job satisfaction, which,in turn, increases motivation and better performance. Herzberg et al. (1959)suggested that improvement in the hygiene factors (salary, company policies,working conditions, etc.) does not lead to increase in employee motivation. Thetheory has been criticized on the grounds of (1) failure to provide the evidenceof existence of two factors, such as motivation and hygiene, (2) assuming that
Intrapersonal Conflict113Figure 6.2The Job Characteristics ModelSource:Adapted from Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980).Work redesign. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley, p. 90.motivating factors increase motivation of all employees, and (3) failure to spec-ify how motivating factors can be measured for existing jobs (Hackman & Old-ham, 1976).Another approach to job enrichment, recently developed by Hackman andOldham (1980), is shown in Figure 6.2. Their approach attempts to make jobsmore meaningful by increasing or adding certain core job characteristics, suchas skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Thisapproach attempts to remedy some of the problems in Herzberg et al.’s approach.Building on the works of Turner and Lawrence (1965), Hackman and Oldham(1975) identified five core dimensions that must be considered in enriching ajob. These dimensions are positively related to motivation, satisfaction, and qual-ity of work and negatively related to turnover and absenteeism. It is expectedthat these five dimensions will negatively relate to intrapersonal conflict. Thefive core dimensions can be described as follows:1.Skill variety. This refers to the degree to which a job requires a variety of activitiesthat involve the use of a number of different skills and talents of employees.2.Task identity. This refers to the degree to which the job requires an employee to
114Managing Conflict in Organizationsperform a complete piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with avisible outcome.