If an insecurely attached person can get into a relationship with a securely

If an insecurely attached person can get into a

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If an insecurely attached person can get into a relationship with a securely attached partner, these vulnerabilities in maintaining a stable partnership can be overcome The Biology of Love - All human beings have an innate need for attachment and love - Psychologists distinguish between: Passionate (romantic) love: a whirlwind of intense emotions and sexual passion Compassionate love: affection and trust - Men and women are equally likely to feel the need for love and attachment - They differ in average on:
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How they express How they define intimacy - These differences reflect gender roles shaped by social economic and cultural forces Love Chemicals - Various brain chemicals and hormones are associated with bonding and trust: Vasopressin (ADH) = the ‘father gene’ Oxytocin = trust - The rushes of pleasure and reward associated with sexual behavior and romantic passion are created by: Endorphins Dopamine Reward system is involved Role of Sex Hormones in Sexual Desire - Testosterone promotes sexual desire in both men and women; estrogens are also important in women - However, hormones do not cause sexual desire in a simple, direct way - Castration reduces sex drive and hormone replacement restores it, but in a healthy, intact individual, T injections do not noticeably increase sex drive - Whether mean and women are different in some biologically based sex drive continues to be debated - Biological factors vs. gender roles - Are there evolutionary reasons why we might expect males to have a higher sex drive? Social reasons? Common View on Sexuality - Male sexuality is more biologically influenced than a womans, whereas female sexuality is more governed by: Circumstances Relationships Cultural norms Research on Sexual Behavior: Sexology - Surveys (Alfred E. Kinsley) - Found many similarities between men and women - Highly criticized - Believed differences were more biological than social Kinsley Scale - O –Exclusively heterosexual - 3 – Equally hetero and homo sexual - 6 – Exclusively homosexual - x – not interested in sex
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- Masters and Johnson showed that physiologically, both sexes experience similar arousal and physiological responses - Four stages of the sexual responses cycle: Desire Arousal Orgasm Resolution - Beware of the apparent simplicity of stage response - Unfortunately, four stages treated as if they were like they cycles of a washing machine - This leads to mistaken inferences of universality in all aspects - Individuals vary enormously in sexual excitement, response and inhibition - Varies in age, culture, experience - Traditional psychological explanations for homosexuality have not been supported: - These have included: Parenting (smothering mother, absent father) Emotional Problems Same Sex- play during development Childhood seduction Homosexual role models or encouragement - Evidence for biological basis: Same sex activity in hundreds of other species
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