1 adrenocorticotropic hormone acth does not

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1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) does not significantly promote aldosterone secretion. Therefore regulation of aldosterone is independent of anterior pituitary control. The adrenal cortex releases aldosterone primarily in response to the reninDangiotensin system
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The adrenal cortex releases lipophilic (steroid) hormones Sex steroid hormones (minor, also produced in the gonads) ACTH Aldosterone Angiotensin II Low blood pressure CRH
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• Only adrenal sex hormone of importance • Feeds back to inhibit GnRH rather than CRH • Physiologically negligible in men, but accounts for ~50% of circulating androgens in women – Growth of pubic and axillary hair – Enhancement of pubertal growth spurt – Development and maintenance of female sex drive The adrenal cortex releases Dehydroepiandosterone ( DHEA) in response to ACTH
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The adrenal cortex releases lipophilic (steroid) hormones Cortisol Sex steroid hormones (minor, also produced in the gonads) ACTH Aldosterone Angiotensin II Low blood pressure CRH
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Exercise, illness, pain, starvation, emotion 6 am peak When given at high levels, immunosuppressive and anti9inflammatory Permissive for sympathetic activity Fig. 19(9, p. 675 Metabolic effects: Blood glucose levels (Gluconeogenesis) Blood fatty acid levels (Lipolysis –specific areas) Blood amino acid levels (Proteolysis)
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1. Cortisol is the major glucocorticoid in humans 2. Physiological actions include: Increases blood glucose due to increased gluconeogensis and decreased glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue potentiates the effects of catecholamines on lipolysis and blood pressure Inhibits protein synthesis and increases proteolysis is anti?inflammatory and immunosuppressive 3. Behavioral effects include: Initially a feeling of euphoria, but Chronic excessive exposure is associated with emotional lability, insomnia, and depression The adrenal cortex releases glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) in response to ACTH
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The adrenal medulla releases hydrophilic (catacholamine) hormones Cortisol Sex steroid hormones (minor, also produced in the gonads) ACTH ± Catecholamines ² Epinephrine (~80%) Norepinephrine (~20%) Ach Sympathetic preDganglionic neuron Aldosterone Angiotensin II Low blood pressure CRH
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1. Adrenal secretion of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) generally reinforces sympathetic output. Recall, this is your ± Fight or flight response. ² 2. Epinephrine also has specific effects by acting via ! 2 adrenergic receptors (which have no affinity for norepinephrine).
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