2 argumentum ad verecundiam appeal to authority this

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2, Argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to authority) This fallacy refers to the appeal to authority to win assent to a conclusion - that is, appeal to the  feeling of respect people have for the institution or person in authority. This method of argument is  not always strictly fallacious, for the reference to an admitted authority in the special field of his/her  competence may carry great weight and constitute relevant evidence. If laymen are d isp uting over  some question of physical science and one appeals to the testimony of Einstein on the matter, that  testimony is very relevant. Although it does not prove the point, it certainly tends to support it. But when an authority is appealed to for testimony in matters outside the province of his special field, the appeal commits the fallacy of argumentum ad verecundiam. If in an argument over religion one  of the d isp utants appeals to the opinions of Darwin, the appeal is fallacious. Advertising  “testimonials” are frequent instances of this fallacy. We are urged to smoke this or that brand of  cigarette because a champion swimmer or football star affirms their superiority.   3. Argumentum ad populum (appeal to the masses) The fallacy is committed in directing an emotional appeal “to the people” or “to the masses” with a  view to winning their assent to a conclusion unsupported by good evidence. It is an attempt to win  popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feelings and enthusiasms of the multitude. This  fallacy is a favourite device with propagandists, politicians, street preachers, demagogues, and  advertisers among others. Faced with the task of mobilising public sentiment for or against a  particular measure, the propagandist or politician avoids the laborious process of collecting and  presenting evidence and rational argument and instead choose to use the short-cut methods  of  argumentum ad populum . For example, where the proposal is for change and he is against it, he  will express suspicion of “viability or admissibility of the program” and praise the wisdom of the  “existing order.” If he is for it, he will be for “progress” and opposed to “antiquated prejudice.”   4. Argumentum ad ignorantam (argument from ignorance) This fallacy is illustrated by the argument that something is true because no one has ever proved  that it is not, for example the argument that there must be ghosts because no one has ever been  able to prove that there aren’t any commits this fallacy. It is committed whenever it is argued that a 
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