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the authority of the bakufu or the Shogun. Tokugawa does not advocate for the opening up of Japan, but they open up anyway, allowing western ideas to flow in. This debate represents the distrust/ view of the West from non Western countries. It also began Japanese military expansion (militarization) to prevent themselves from following China’s fate. This enabled them to become imperializing forces themselves. ●General Time Period: Written in August 14, 1853, right after Commodore Perry left Japan. "Human history would be a really stupid affair without that spirit which entered it from the powerless. Everything on earth which has been done against "the nobility," "the powerful," "the masters," "the possessors of power" is not worth mentioning in comparison with what the Jews have done against them: the Jews, that priestly people, who knew how to get final satisfaction from their enemies and conquerors through a radical transformation of their values, that is, through an act of the most spiritual revenge." (Nietzsche, "On the Genealogy of Morals") ●Speaker: Friedrich Nietzsche, German Philosopher ●Subject: The Jews were the most significant form of moral vengeance where they took in what was being said about them and they changed the way that society viewed them. Nietzsche identifies the Jews as the finest example of the priestly caste, the most refined haters in human history. The Jews managed to affect a complete reversal in moral valuations, associating themselves, the poor, the wretched, the meek, with "good," and the lustful, powerful, and noble as "evil," damned for all eternity. THe Jews and their values especially highlight the idea of slave morality and they are the meek and powerless so they resent those who are not. ●Occasion: He was against anti-semitism but his work was constantly misconstrued during this time by people who were anti-semitic. He also critiques Christianity. ●Purpose: Nietzsche is expressing his distaste for historians and philosophers who claim that what was good and what was useful were considered one in the same. Nietzsche disagrees and does not think that those people who had “goodness” were necessarily good. It was the “good” themselves, the noble and the powerful, who defined “good”. Their position of power included their power over words aka the power to decided what would be called “good” and “bad” . Morality has been designed and created by the powerful to keep them in power and set up those social distinctions of good and bad. Other people have talked about the ideas of good vs. bad like Hobbes, Locke and
Rousseau (state of nature), however Nietzsche argues that is is not this natural process but has been created by the upper classes to build up their own way of behaving and acting in society. This is a manipulated viewpoint. This has been created throughout history ●General Time Period: 1887 (Patty (lol patty, love it) said nothing super relevant was happening during this time) “The Superintendent, in order to save the lives of his imprisoned fellow Countrymen, gave at