view the policy process as a series of polirical activities prob lem

View the policy process as a series of polirical

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view the policy process as a series of polirical activities-prob- lem identification, agenda setting, formulation, legitimation, implementation, and evaluation. The process model is useful in helping us ro understand the various acriviries involved in policymaking. We wanr ro keep in mind that policymaking involves agenda setting (cap- turing the attention of policymakers), formulating proposals (devising and selecting policy options), legitimating policy (developing political supporr; winning congressional, presi- dential, or court approval), implementing policy (crearing bureaucracies, spending money, enforcing laws), and evaluat- ing policy (frnding out whether policies work, whether they are popular). Policy as Institutiona[ Output 17 Processes: Apptyrng the Modet Potitical processes and behaviors are considered in ach of the po[icy areas studied in thi book. Additionai com- mentary on the impact of potiticat activity on pubtic potiry is found in Chapter 3, 'The Poticymaking process: Decision-Making Activities," and Chapter 4, "Policy Evaluation: Finding Out What Happens After a Law Is Passed." Institutionatism: Apptying the Model In Chapter 5, "Federatism and State Poticies: InstitutionaI Anangements and Poliry Variations," we shatl examine some of the problems of American federatism-the distribution of money and power among federal, state, and [oca[ governments. INSTITUTIONALISM: POLICY AS INSTITUTIONAL OUTPUT Govemment institutions have long been a central focus of politicalscience. Tiaditionally, polirical science was defined as the study of govemment institurions. Polirical activities generally center around particular govemment institutions-Congress, the presidency, courLs, bureaucracies, states, municipalities, and so on. Public policy is authoritatively determined, implemenred, and enforced by these institutions. The relationship between public policy and govemmenr institutions is very close. Strictly speaking, a policy does not become apublic policy until it is adopted, implemented, and enforced by some govemment institution. Government institutions give publicpolicy three distinctive characteristics. First, govemment lends legtfuucy to policies. Govemment policies are generally regarded as legal obligations that command the loyalty of citizens. People may regard thi policies of other groups and associations in society---<orporations, churches, professional organizations, civic associations, and so forth-as important and even binding. But only govemment policies involve legal obligations. Second, govemment policies involve rmiversality. Only govemment poli. cies extend to all people in a society; the policies of other groups or organizations reach only . part of the society. Finally, government monopolizes coercion in society-only govemment can legitimately imprison violarors of its policies. The sanctions that can be imposedby other goups or organizations in society are more limited.
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  • Fall '19
  • Prof. Madya Dr. Norhayati Binti Daud

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