When the Diefenbaker government cancelled the Awo Arrow in 1959 see Flashpoint

When the diefenbaker government cancelled the awo

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industries. When the Diefenbaker government cancelled the Awo Arrow in 1959 (see Flashpoint, p. 27I), rhe defence tech- nology that replaced it was largely American. Canada and the World 265
The Ctimate of Fear For most Canadians after WW II, communism replaced fascism as the political nightrnare.In 1949, the USSR acquired the atomic bomb. In the early 1950s, the threat of nuclear annihilation seemed very real to average Canadians. North American paranoia about communism was evident in American Senator Joseph McCarthy's Senate subcommittee on "un-American activities," which hunted down real or imagined communists. This witchhunt ruined many peoples' careers. In Canada, basic civil rights were sometimes ignored so that sus- pected communists could be weededout. For instance, in 1951 the Citizenship Act was changed to allow authorities to revoke the citizenship of naturalized Canadians who had been convicted of crimes involving "disaffection or disloy- alty." The legislationwas directed at communists. Civit Defence Civil defence-preparation for a possible nuclear attack-became imporant across the country. In 1950, the federal government coordinated national civil defence planning and assisted provinces in setting up their own civil defence programs. In the event of attack, the CBC would become a,24-how-a- day emergency survival network. Evacuation plans were prepared for major Canadian cities. Fatlout Shetter During the 1950s fallout shelters became somethingof a fad. Somecompanies offered to build the underground shelters in backyards. Shelters that amounted to lengths of concrete pipe sold for about $700.The federal government took fallout shelters very seriously. It constructed large, fully equipped under- ground shelters to house high-level government officials in the event of a nuclear aftack. Since theywere initiated by Joht Diefenbaker's government, th.y were nick- named "Diefenbunkers. " Figure 1fJr7 Complete with halls big enough for truck traffic, the biggest "Diefenbunker" remains one ofthe most vivid reminders of Canada's Cold War mentality. Begun in 1961 , the bunker is a city underground from which political leaders could continue to govern the country---or what was left of it-after anall-out nuclear war. Four storeys high and constructed of poured concrete and steel, the bunker is hidden under a farmer's field in the Ottawa Valley. Within, living quarters and supplies were provided for 500 people who would live sealed underground for30 days. The compound also housed every- thing deemed necessary t0 the survival of the country, including CBC Radio, to relay information about the nuclear attack and its aftermath, as well as a Bank of Canada vault. The facility was never used, and was turned into a museum after closing in 1994. 266 Chapter 10
CANADA ENTERS THE ATOMIC AOT

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