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Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Each lineage between amino acids is formed by a

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each lineage between amino acids is formed by a “peptide bond” in a sequential fashion o ribosome is specialized enzyme complex for making peptide bonds between aa's with the sequence of aa's determined by mRNA o product of ribosome is a “poly-peptide” – “pre-protein” Ribosomes carry out translation
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o two types of ribosomes o free ribosomes → floating around in cytosol and contact mRNA in cytosol and make polypeptide within cytosol (function in cytoplasma or nucleus) o ribosome in endoplasmic reticulum (rough) → poly-peptide formed within a specified membrane (part of membrane bound polypeptide) Epigenetic Regulating III: RNA silencing/ interference o interference w/translation o RNA silencing/interference: a short strand of RNA (floating around) can bind to a complimentary segment of the mRNA to block translation will prevent ribosome from binding to mRNA and prevent translation the inhibiting strand is referred to as “micro-RNA” (miRNA) if it is endogenously produced the inhibiting strand is referred to as “short hairpin loop-RNA” (shRNA) if it is artificially produced *potential therapeutic* complex translational level control for gene expression Post-translational processing o Golgi Apparatus cleavage into smaller polypeptides which go on to be diff functional proteins every time there is a genetic transcription, can get multiple types of proteins produced from a single gene being read adding a nonamino acid component to a developing protein glycosylation – addition of sugars (carbs) – important for immune system function. Critical part of how cells recognize each other phopholipidation – addition of fats to amino acids to make more complex functional protein can capsule polypetide Protein Transported o axosplasmic flow slow movement of molecules, movement of cytoplasm to axon o anterograde axonal transported – how polypeptide get to their target. Dependent on cytoskeleton and kinesin molecules fast, energy dependent, kinesin & microtubules o reterograde axonal transport dependent on internal properties of polypeptides fast, energy dependent, dynein & microtubules once the final polypeptide is derived, it needs to take on proper “conformation” or shape; may involve multiple polypeptides working together. o Tertiary and quartnery levels of conformation o 3D structure depends on sequence of amino acids use to make it! Protein complexes and incorporation o networks of scaffolding proteins coordinate many types of proteins eg. postsynaptic density; critical to proper neuronal communication
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