3 The more involved an audience is with the message the more they tend to

3 the more involved an audience is with the message

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3.The more involved an audience is with the message, the more they tend to process via the central route.B.Consistency theory refers to the tendency to seek and strive to maintain logical order among convictions and behaviors.1.If people experience inconsistency between their ideas or actions, then they experience cognitive dissonance.a.Cognitive dissonance refers to a feeling of discomfort over contradictions between one’s beliefs and actions.b.The discomfort of cognitive dissonance drives people to resolve the contradiction.c.Cognitive dissonance provides a powerful persuasive tool for altering attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and values.d.To use cognitive dissonance in persuasive presentations, reveal to the audience some inconsistency in the way they think or act.2.Cognitive dissonance may not work for all audiences.a.Some people have a high tolerance for inconsistency.b.Consistency theory assumes people follow logic.c.Some people may ignore the inconsistency entirely.C.A persuasive message can be one-sided or two-sided.1.A one-sided technique presents arguments only for the speaker’s position.a.One-sided messages are effective if the audience doesn’t know the alternatives.b.Many advertisements employ one-sided messages.2.A two-sided refutational message presents the speaker’s position, the opposing position, and the arguments against the other side and/or the advantages to the speaker’s side.a.The two-sided refutational approach provides the audience a criterion for evaluating a position.b.The approach works well with audiences having a high motivation to scrutinize the message.c.To be effective, one must acknowledge and refute the opposing viewpoints.d.The structure of a two-sided refutational message typically takes the following form:i.Present one’s own position.ii.Present the opposing position.iii.Refute the opposing position.D.Fear appeals rely on influence through fright; they rely on severity, salience, and solutions.
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1.Effective fear appeals require severity, which refers to the intensity of the fear appeal.a.The more severe the fear appeal, the greater its effect—as long as the audience has a way to escape the fear.b.Severe fear appeals with no way out may generate a boomerang effect, which is a response opposite to what the source intended (e.g., laughing at gruesome scenes ofautomobile accidents).c.If the audience doesn’t believe the fearful things will happen to them, then they will disregard the appeal.2.Effective fear appeals require salience: the audience must feel a fear appeal poses a personal threat for the danger to create a response.3.Effective fear appeals require solutions.a.Not providing solutions makes the audience feel as though they do not have the ability to counteract the fear.
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  • Fall '08
  • CAROLSTEGER
  • Audience theory

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