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4.2Explain how the circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, red blood cells) transports nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes cell wastes. Describe how the kidneys and the liver are closely associated with the circulatory system as they perform the excretory function of removing waste from the blood. Recognize that kidneys remove nitrogenous wastes, and the liver removes many toxic compounds from blood.4.3Explain how the respiratory system (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, alveoli) provides exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.4.4Explain how the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, sensory neurons, motor neurons) mediates communication among different parts of the body and mediates the body’s interactions with the environment. Identify the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron, and explain generally how it works.4.5Explain how the muscular/skeletal system (skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles, bones, cartilage,ligaments, tendons) works with other systems to support the body and allow for movement. Recognize that bones produce blood cells.4.6Recognize that the sexual reproductive system allows organisms to produce offspring that receivehalf of their genetic information from their mother and half from their father, and that sexually produced offspring resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents.4.7Recognize that communication among cells is required for coordination of body functions. The nerves communicate with electrochemical signals, hormones circulate through the blood, and some cells produce signals to communicate only with nearby cells.4.8Recognize that the body’s systems interact to maintain homeostasis. Describe the basic function of a physiological feedback loop.
Biology, High SchoolLearning Standards for a Full First-Year Course5. Evolution and BiodiversityCentral Concepts:Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. Over many generations, changes in the genetic make-up of populations may affect biodiversity through speciation and extinction.5.1Explain how evolution is demonstrated by evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetics, molecular biology, and examples of natural selection.5.2Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities. Describe the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation.5.3Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population.6. EcologyCentral Concept:Ecology is the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment.