2010 however the prototype approach proposes that

This preview shows page 10 - 11 out of 25 pages.

We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 7 / Exercise 2
What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
Pastorino
Expert Verified
similar predictions about semantic memory (Rips et al., 2010). However, the prototype approach proposes that your stored representation is a typical member of the category. In contrast, the exemplar approach proposes that your stored representation is a collection of numerous specific members of the category (Medin & Rips, 2005; Ja kel et al., 2008; Yang & Lewandowsky, 2004). Furthermore, the exemplar approach emphasizes that people do not need to perform any kind of abstraction process (Barsalou, 2003; Heit & Barsalou, 1996; Knowlton, 1997). For example, suppose that you had read four case studies about depressed people. You would not need to devise a prototype—an ideal, typical person with depression. The exemplar approach argues that creating a prototypical person would force you to discard useful, specific data about individual cases. One problem with the exemplar approach, however, is that our semantic memory would quickly become overpopulated with numerous exemplars for numerous cate- gories (Love & Tomlinson, 2010; Nosofsky & Palmeri, 1998; Sternberg & Ben-Zeev, 2001). The exemplar approach may therefore be more suitable when you think about a category that has relatively few members (Knowlton, 1997). For instance, the exemplar approach might operate well for the category ‘‘tropical fruit,’’ unless you happen to live in a tropical region of the world.In contrast, the prototypeapproach may be more suitable when considering a category that has numerous members. For example, a prototype may be the most efficient approach for a large category such as ‘‘fruit’’ or ‘‘animal.’’ Despite the encouraging results fromHeit and Barsalou’s (1996) study, the exemplar approach may be simply too bulky for some purposes. In many situations, it is not effective to use a classification strategy based purely on exemplars (Erickson & Kruschke, 1998, 2002). Furthermore, individual differences may be substantial in the way people repre- sent categories. Perhaps some people store information about specific exemplars, especially for categories in which they have expertise. Other people may construct categories that do not include information about specific exemplars (Thomas, 1998). Instead, these individuals may construct categories based on more generic prototypes. In reality, your semantic memory seems to be quite flexible.The prototype approach and the exemplar approach may both operate, and a concept could include information about both prototypes and specific exemplars (Love & Tomlinson, 2010; Minda & Smith, 2011; Wisniewski, 2002). In fact, one possibility is that the left hemisphere of your brain tends to store prototypes, and the right hemisphere tends to store exemplars (Bruno et al., 2003; Gazzaniga et al., 2009; Laeng et al., 2003). People may in fact use a combination of prototype strategies and exemplar strategies when they form categories in everyday life.
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 7 / Exercise 2
What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
Pastorino
Expert Verified

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture