Conclusion this paper reviewed the state of the art

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Conclusion This paper reviewed the state of the art on fracture mechanics with a focus on rubber-based materials and classified the research on this topic into the two main categories: the developments and concepts linked to fracture mechanics and fatigue crack behavior and life prediction in rubber-based materials. Additionally, in following with the stress intensity factor calculation by DIC and phantom node methods, J-integral value could be computed. DIC did not require determining the exact crack tip location, which was an advantage of DIC. Phantom-node is another method to calculate the stress intensity factors, which was compared with DIC method in this framework. The concept of fracture mechanics applied to rubber-based materials was investigated by studying several methods including tearing energy, local energy release rate, maximum principal stretch, and effective stretch. Moreover, SED, local SED, generalized maximum tangential stress, critical distance theory, FFM, and cohesive zone model were the
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P a g e | 13 recent criteria covered in this paper in order to study the crack development in structures. Fatigue life prediction equations have been widely studied in terms of the crack growth rate and the range of the stress intensity factors in each cycle. Understanding the fatigue crack initiation and growth in the rubber-based materials has been pointed out in the literature. There are some innovative experimental and numerical works indicating the methods by which the resistance of rubber structures against fatigue failure can be improved. Moreover, the effect of amplitude loading conditions on the fatigue life of multiaxial rubber specimen has been studied by comparing two filled rubber materials. Some research studies indicated the maximum principal strain and stress as fatigue damage characters. The fatigue life prediction in rubber-based materials in combination with the continuum damage mechanics approach was another successful method to present the fatigue life equations.
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P a g e | 14 References Zhou S, Beazley D, Lomdahl P, et al. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of three- dimensional ductile failure. Phys Rev Lett 1997; 78: 479. Rice JR. A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. J Appl Mech 1968; 35: 379–386. Sih GC. Strain-energy-density factor applied to mixed mode crack problems. Int J Fract 1974; 10: 305–321. Erdogan F and Sih G. On the crack extension in plates under plane loading and transverse shear. J Basic Eng 1963; 85: 519–525. Nuismer R. An energy release rate criterion for mixed mode fracture. Int J Fract 1975; 11: 245– 250.
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