many to respond to surveys–Cost (money and time)- What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? How does a researcher decide whether qualitative or quantitative research should be pursued first? (see review slides)•Qualitative or quantitative research?–For consumer products, qualitative research can be used to accomplish the following tasks:▪To provide consumer understanding; to “get close” to the consumer▪To describe the social and cultural contexts of consumer behavior,including cultural, religious, and political factors that impact decision making▪To identify core-brand equity and “get under the skin” of brands▪To “mine” the consumer and identify what people really feel–In qualitative research, questions are almost always open-ended or in-depth, and unstructured responses, including storytelling–E.g., direct observation of consumers in choice or product usage situations, focus group interview, in-depth interviews–Nissan Motors sent a researcher to live with an American family for 6 weeks to directly observe how Americans use their cars
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•Qualitative research can help develop research hypotheses•Quantitative research can test the hypotheses in subsequent studies- What is a convenience sample? What is a quota sample? (p194, Chapter 6).•Sampling bias in survey research–Some researchers rely on a convenience sample–Issues with statistical reliability–Precautions taken to ensure a representative sampleThe result of a nonprobability sample cannot be projected with statistical reliability. One form of nonprobability sample is a convenience sample. As the name implies, researchers select peoplewho are easy to reach. •What can you do to reduce sampling bias? Obtain a quota sample–Divides the population under study into categories, a sample is then takenfrom each categoryTo obtain a quota sample, the researcher divides the population under study into categories; a sample is then taken from each category. THe term quota refers to the need to make sure that enough people are chosen in each category. The term quota refers to the need to make sure that enough people are chosen in each category to reflect the overall makeup of the population. - Explain cultural differences in response bias (see review slides).●Cultural differences in response bias–Consumers in some cultures such as Japan tend to respond to rating scales more conservatively than Americans–7-point Likert scale: 1=extremely satisfied; 7=extremely dissatisfied–Japanese consumers tend to answer more toward the middle (moderacy bias), while American (extremity bias) consumers tend to answer toward the extremes–Solution: statistical standardization, but there are limits too- What is neuro-marketing? What is the advantage of this method? (see review slides).
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