West africa reporting voyages to the west 4 presents

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West Africa reporting voyages to the West 4. Presents skeletal evidence from studies by craniologist Andrzej Weircinski which reveal a clear presence of Africanoid skulls from Olmec BCE sites
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Lecture 7: February 21, 2013 00:12 5. Cites Thor Heyerdals Atlantic crossing to demonstrate the possibility of Egyptians crossing the Atlantic and argues that both East and West Africans had the capacity for trans-Atlantic travels and makes the point that Africans navigated the Atlantic before the Christian Era
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Lecture 8: February 28, 2013 00:12 PART 1: African Enslavement How many voyages did Europeans make to trade in human beings? More than 54,000 voyages How many people were taken from the shore of west Africa? 11 million What is the voyage from west Africa in the New World called? Middle passage PART 2: Topographies of Resistance Resistance Smaller population size The existence of less nearby unsettled regions for Maroon or independent societies of escaped Africans The isolated character of the U.S. populations which hampered organized unified efforts The harsh winters which made survival in Maroon societies more difficult to maintain as opposed to tropical areas where food and shelter were less a problem The drastic decline of importation of large numbers of new Africans after 1807 with the federal prohibition of trafficking in enslaved persons, thus depriving enslaved Africans of a vital source of revitalization and rebellion The greater balance between the sexes and division into family units in the U.S. which often dampened male rebellion and flight in consideration for their family The pervasive severity of the system which was not contend to dominate physically but engaged in a very aggressive form of deculturalization and psychological dislocations (SEASONING) Resistance 1. Deny support to, challenge or over turn the established order 2. Deny, diminish, or eliminate its hold 3. Force changes in its structure and functioning order 4. Escape its control and jurisdiction Five Basic Forms of Enslaved African Resistance Cultural “The Slave Community” – John Blassingan Cultural Retention and Synthesis Retention: Dances, moral narratives, music, language patterns and spiritual beliefs
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Lecture 8: February 28, 2013 00:12 Synthesis: religion and music where in the process of acculturation enslaved Africans made European forms serve African interests Cultural Creation Maintenance and development of a family against all odds Systematic sexual abuse of African women The division and selling of family members, the forced breeding practices The denial and restriction of the African man’s ability to protect, provide for and exercise authority in his family Day to Day Sabotage (such as) breaking tools and destroying crops, shamming illness, or ignorance, taking property, spontaneous and planned strikes, work slow downs, self mutilation, arson, attacks on overseers, and poisoning of slave-holders and their families as well as running away Abolition
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