Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

Hasdrubal brother of hannibal general in second punic

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children, treated like a mythical figure. Hasdrubal - Brother of Hannibal. General in second punic war. Led the Punic forces in Spain and defeated. Carthage –In northern Tunisia, Center of Carthaginian civilization, Destroyed by Romans in the Third Punic War, became major Roman city in the Province of Africa Saguntum - makes an alliance with Rome and the Carthaginian attack, officially establishing war with Rome (2nd Punic War) Capua – City in Italy that defected to Carthage. Betrayal of fides . Hannibal must now protect them. Tarentum – City in Italy that also defected to Carthage. Alliance with Capua and Tarentum proved more harm than good for Hannibal as he was unable to protect both of them simultaneously from Roman forces. Lake Trasimene – 217 BC Hannibal traps Roman forces here, invading from the North w/elephants. Huge loss for Romans in the 2nd Punic War. Cannae – 216 BC, Second punic war. Hannibal wins against much larger roman army. Impressive success for Hannibal, awful defeat for Romans. Caused many surrounding italian cities to defect from Republic to Carthage Zama - 202 BC, With Hannibal’s forces in Italy dwindled, Rome decided to bring war to enemy’s homeland. Roman forces led by Scipio threatening the capital of Carthage propelled Hannibal to return home for defence. Unlike Cannae, Hannibal’s strategy was to crash into the Roman forces with the elephants in a style that is traditionally more Roman. Scipio, employing a tactic that allowed the roman soldiers to evade the elephants altogether, maneuvered his superior cavalry forces to surround the Carthaginian forces. Outcome was a massacre of Hannibal’s elite forces, effectively putting Hannibal out of command. Carthage is now a Roman city-state with limited fleet power.
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4 Questions -How do founding legends build cultural identity? Because Romans were initially a people made up of vagabonds and immigrants, these founding legends helped give them something central to care about and identify with. Romans were known for being welcoming to newcomers. Message of violence and resilience resonated with early Romans. -What can they tell us, and what can’t they? -Fratricide of Remus by Romulus reveals culture of violence and betrayal -Romulus killing Remus is similar to Cain killing Abel in that this type of visceral violence is often linked with the unapologetic establishment of a major power. -Rape of the Sabines reveals importance of marriage in connecting people, also that marriage/kinship ties makes people forget past atrocities. - tales and legends look similar to Greek legends, which tells us how they admire the Greeks What is Livy’s attitude toward the “historicity” [‘facts’ of history, but also the knowledge of how we come to know and interpret these facts] of his material, and what other goals is he pursuing besides that?
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