Light grazing insufficient to produce compensatory

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Light grazing insufficient to produce compensatory growth. Heavy grazing reduces plant’s capacity to recover.
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24 Primary Production in the Serengeti
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25 Trophic Dynamic View of Ecosystems Lindeman concluded the ecosystem concept is fundamental to the study of energy transfer within an ecosystem. Suggested grouping organisms within an ecosystem into trophic levels. Each feeds on level immediately below. As energy is transferred from one trophic level to another, energy is degraded.
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26 Trophic Dynamic View of Ecosystems As energy is transferred from one trophic level to another, energy is degraded: Limited assimilation Consumer respiration Heat production Energy quality decreases with each successive trophic level. Pyramid-shaped energy distribution.
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27 Energy Flow in A Temperate Deciduous Forest Gosz studied solar energy flow: 15% reflected 41% converted to heat 42% absorbed during evapotranspiration 2.2% fixed by plants as gross primary production 1.2% used in plant respiration 1% left for primary production
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28 Energy Flow in A Temperate Deciduous Forest 99% of solar energy unavailable for use by second trophic level. As energy losses between trophic levels accumulate, eventually there is insufficient energy left to support a viable population at a higher trophic level.
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30 Review Introduction Terrestrial Primary Production Evapotranspiration Aquatic Primary Production Consumer Influences Trophic Levels/Dynamics
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