The second aspect was studies were driven by concern about moral health of

The second aspect was studies were driven by concern

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of society (sociologist of morality). Durkheim believed that society needs a strong common morality. Durkheim attempted to deal with his interest in common morality with different concepts. With this being said, Durkheim developed the idea of the collective conscience. Durkheim claimed that the collective conscience was taking place inside of a given society. Durkheim argued that the collective conscience was independent and capable of determining other social facts within a society. He refers to the collective conscience as a structure of shared understandings, norms, and beliefs. In this concept, Durkheim argued that “primitive” societies had a stronger collective conscience than modern societies. Meaning that “primitive” society has more shared understandings, norms, and beliefs than modern societies.
With to the collective conscience being such a broad idea, it led Durkheim to use the collective conscience less in favor of the much more specific concept of collective representations. He used this term to refer to both collective conscience and social forces in which was characterized as shared beliefs, norms, and values. For example, collective representations are more likely to be connected to material symbols (i.e. flags, icons, etc.). The last non material fact that Durkheim talks about is social currents. Social currents are sets of meanings that are shared by members of a collectivity. Even though social currents are less concrete than other social facts, they are still social facts because they cannot be reduced to just one individual.In “The Division of Labor in Society”, Durkheim outlined the development of the modern relation between individuals and society. Durkheim wanted to examine what many at thetime had come to see as the modern crisis of morality. He claimed that the division of labor that pulls people together and that people are forced to be dependent on others for goods and services. Durkheim also claimed that people are more likely to have shared experiences and values in ‘simple’ societies as they tend to do similar tasks (little to no specialization). In this work by Durkheim, he states that the division of labor pulls people together by forcing them to be dependent on each other. To some it might seem that the division of labor is an economic necessity that destroys the feeling of solidarity; however, Durkheim argued that “the economic services that it can render are insignificant compared with the moral effect that it produces and its true function is to create between two or more people a feeling of solidarity” (pg. 46).The change in the division of labor has had many implications for the structure of society.

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