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be put in place for individuals with high risk factors for heart disease by educating individuals onthe importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors, including eating right, exercising, not being overweight or obese, not smoking, getting annual physicals, and taking good care of oneself. Focusing on prevention strategies is much more cost effective than focusing on other health care strategies after the patient has been diagnosed with heart disease and depression. Public health and health care professionals can make sure to put interventions in to place to decrease the number of depressed individuals with both CAD and CAS to make their quality of life higher. Health care professionals can look at the data that states more women are depressed than men and try to focus on decreasing the number of depressed women with heart disease. This can be done by understanding what causes the woman to become depressed and what factors contribute to this depression and start an intervention that will help the patient become happier. A health care intervention from a nurse or provider can consist of medication, psychotherapy, exercise, practicing mindfulness, family support, and having a nurse follow up with the patient after they get out of the hospital to make sure that they are following all of the correct things to improve their health. In the first article, “Gender-specific characteristics of individuals with depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease,”the study chose to examine gender-specific
FINAL PROJECT ARTICLE REVIEWcharacteristics that distinguished both men and women with depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of the study was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and psychobehavioral characteristics that distinguish men and women from both depression and CHD (Doering, et al., 2011). The article discussed how being female and having CHD is linked with poor outcomes, including higher mortality and morbidity after coronary events and poorer symptom relief, compared with men (Doering, et al., 2011). When demographic, clinical, and psychobehavioral factors were considered together, those independently associated with female gender were lower education, single status, unemployment, negative history of revascularization or MI, negative smoking history, high anxiety, adequate knowledge of ACS symptoms, and feeling less personal control over one’s health (Doering, et al., 2011). When all factors were considered together, depressed women were approximately 4 times as likely to be single and twice as likely to have a high school education or less, compared with depressed men (Doering, et al., 2011). In this study, women with depressive symptoms were more likely to be anxious and have lower perceived control over their health than men with depressive symptoms (Doering, et al., 2011). Both attributes offer an opportunity for intervention (Doering, et al., 2011). In contrast, men were more likely than women to have both changeable characteristics (less knowledge of