What does it contain 2 what is not contained in the

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What is filtrate? What does it contain? 2. What is not contained in the filtrate and why? 3. What determines the rate of filtration across the glomerulus? 4. What does the PCT secrete? 5. How much is reabsorbed in the PCT? (actual percentages of water and solutes) 6. Why is the osmolarity of the filtrate the same at the beginning and end of the PCT? 7. In the PCT the filtrate osmolarity decreases and becomes more what? (concentrated or diluted) 8. Is the filtrate in the DCT more or less diluted than in the PCT? 9. What does ADH determine in regards to the filtrate osmolarity? If the ADH level is high what does this increase? 10.What does aldosterone in the collecting ducts increase? Normal urine is composed of water, urea, creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes and occasionally small amounts of hormones, pigments, carbohydrates, fatty acid, mucous and some enzymes. In this activity you will examine the physical characteristics of your own urine sample. You will observe color, cloudiness and odor. You will then compare your sample to a chart showing normal characteristics of urine. Table 1: Characteristics of Normal Urine Characteristic Presentation in Normal Urine Volume 1-2 liters per day Color Yellow, straw, amber, or transparent Turbidity Clear; may turn cloudy after standing Odor Aromatic or ammonia-like Sterility No microorganisms present pH 4.5 to 8 Specific Gravity 1.001 to 10.35 Glucose Not present Ketone Bodies (Acetone) Not Present Blood Not Present Activity 2: Urinalysis Testing Materials Needed: Urinalysis Test Strip Test Strip Analysis Key 3
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Paper cup for urine sample Paper Towel Additional: Data Table designed by you to show your results will be needed. Procedure: 1. Get a small cup to in which to collect your urine sample. 2. Before collecting, void a small amount of urine from your bladder to clear the urethra of any contaminants such as bacteria or menstrual blood. 3. Void into the small cup. 4. Wash your hands 5. Observe the physical characteristics of your urine sample and record the information into the data table. a. The color of your urine will vary from very pale yellow to amber. Urochrome is the byproduct of hemoglobin that gives urine its yellowish color. b. The clarity or cloudiness of your urine sample. Is there any sediment? c. The following are the normal urine values most testing covers. You may have a few additional ones on your strips. 1. pH 2. specific gravity 3. turbidity –clear or cloudy 4. glucose 5. 6. blood (hemoglobin) 7. protein (albumin) 8. ketone bodies 9. 10. 4
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6. You will now test the pH of your urine sample. 7. Dip the pH test strip into the sample for a few seconds and remove. 8. Place the pH test strip on a paper towel and compare the color of the test with the pH color guide on the strip. Record the pH of your urine in the data table.
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  • Fall '15
  • Dr. Valeria Rus
  • kidneys form urine

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