# D estimate p and q and interpret each in the context

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d. Estimate p and q and interpret each in the context of the problem. q 2 = .20 so q = .447 We estimate that 44.7% of the alleles in the sample are recessive r. p + q = 1 so p = .553 We estimate that 55.3% of the alleles in the sample are dominant R. e. Estimate how many of the right handed people are homozygous and how many are heterozygous. Homozygous = RR = p 2 so (.553) 2 = .305 .305 X 10 = 3.05 so we would guess 3 are homozygous. Heterozygous = Rr = 2pq = 2(.553)(.447) = .494 X 10 = 4.94 so we would guess 5 are heterozygous. 3 homozygous + 5 heterozygous = 8 right handed people.

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Formulas: p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 p = frequency of the dominant allele in a population p + q = 1 q = frequency of the recessive allele in a population Example problem: In 1990 the East Kentwood High School student body was made up of 90% right handed students. Being right handed (R) is the dominant trait over being left handed (r). a. What is p and q for the population of 1990 East Kentwood High School students. Interpret each. 90% right handed means 10% are left handed. q 2 = .10 so q = .316. p + q = 1 so p = .684. p = .684 68.4% of all the alleles at EKHS in 1990 are R. q = .316 31.6% of all the alleles at EKHS in 1990 are r. b. Find the percent of the student body in 1990 that are homozygous right handed, heterozygous right handed, and left handed. p 2 = (.684) 2 = .468 so 46.8% of students are homozygous right handed (RR) 2pq = 2(.316)(.684) = .432 so 43.2% of students are heterozygous right handed (Rr) q 2 = (.316) 2 = .10 so 10% of students are left handed (rr) Fast forward to today at East Kentwood. Mr. V. took a random sample of 100 East Kentwood students today and found that 18 of them were left handed. c. What are the new p and q values? How do they compare with the values from 1990? q 2 = 18/100 = .18 so q = .424. p + q = 1 so p = .576 p has decreased and q has increased. There are more recessive alleles in the population today. There are many reasons why this apparent change could have occurred. Come up with an East Kentwood example for each: Small population Size: Maybe Mr. V’s sample size is too small to accurately predict the proportion of the population that is left handed. Maybe his small sample just selected many lefties purely by chance. Nonrandom Mating: Women are more naturally attracted to lefties and have had more babies with left handed males than right handed males since 1990. Mutations: The chemicals in Mr. V’s room are causing mutations leading to more lefties Gene Flow: Lefties are generally smarter than righties and love AP classes, so lefties from other school districts have been moving to Kentwood because of the strong AP program here. Natural Selection: Left handed people are better drivers and are much less likely to die in a car accident.
Surface area to Volume and Water Potential Review 1) Cells throughout the world have variable shapes and sizes. Because of this, and because structure is designed around function, certain shapes are optimal for certain processes.

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