Buffers against neglect but not physical abuse effects Preventing Abuse and Maltreatment o Reducing positive attitudes toward physical punishment Educate the public! (video) o Reducing poverty and its stressful effects o Maintaining social supports that advise parents and provide opportunities to vent o Increasing counseling and training in parenting skills (e.g., for at-risk families due to child illness) Peers Middle childhood is when social networks begin to play an important role in development Friendships Groups/Cliques/Crowds Popularity vs. Rejection Aggression and victims Friendships o Friendship: voluntary relationship of two people involving mutual liking Preschoolers: choose based on common interests and getting along well 8-to-11: above, plus psychological characteristics (e.g., trust, helpfulness) Adolescents: above, plus loyalty/intimacy Fear humiliation if friends are disloyal Intimacy especially crucial for girls Who are Friends? o Opposites attract? Or birds of a feather? o Friends tend to be similar in age, of same-sex, and from the same race or ethnic group Latter less true if children’s schools or neighborhoods are ethnically diverse Cross-group friendships help majority group children form more positive attitudes toward a minority 8
o Friends have similar interests, attitudes toward school, recreational pursuits, future plans, and drug use o Friends are also alike in popularity. o What about opposite-sex friendships? No gender differences. Also, people with ONLY opposite-sex friends tend to be unpopular, have low social skills, and low self-esteem. Those with both opposite and same-sex friends are the most popular. Quality and Consequences of Friendships o Not all childhood friendships last o Children benefit from good friendships Higher self-esteem Less likely to be lonely or depressed Act more prosocially Better cope with stresses o Risks of friendships Too much co-rumination: discussing personal problems Co-rumination: more common among girls. brings intimacy but also depression. Reinforce each other’s aggressiveness and risky behaviors (drinking, smoking, etc.) Groups o Clique: small group of child or adolescent friends similar in attitudes, sex, race, and age o Crowd: larger mixed-sex group of older children with similar attitudes and values Crowds vary in status o Children of parents who are: o Authoritative join crowds endorsing adult behavioral standards o Neglectful or permissive join crowds disavowing these standards Group Structure o Dominance hierarchy: groups with a leader to whom others defer o Boys: physical power determines who leads o Girls and older boys: having the best skills to fulfill group’s purpose determines who leads Being outgoing and having good ideas qualifies one to lead class projects Having camping experience qualifies one to lead at summer camps Peer Pressure o Peer pressure: pressure to conform to group norms Not always bad, and not all-powerful!
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- Intelligence quotient