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Dual-earner couples tend to have children later than do couples with a sole earner.This later birth timing is typically seen as a result of dual-earner couples’ greater likelihood of high levels of education between both spouses, but especially the wife.Women have difficulty balancing work and families do not tend todelay or forgo having additional children. Instead, they reduce their working hours. The reduction in working hours explains some, but not all, of the “motherhood penalty,” a drop in wages that occurs for women after they become mothers.Women are penalized in work-place if they have children (taking time off, means fewer promotions, less money) and they are penalized even if they don’t have kids in during hiring positions because gender norms lead employers to assume that mom will have kids, and want to be the primary care taker.Older, more educated African American women are more likely tostay in the labor force after having children and not experience the same reduction in work hours.Children in dual-earner families spend less time with their mothers than do children whose mothers are not employed. Dual-earner fathers are the most involved in child rearing when their wives work full-time and the parents work alternating shifts.Theme: Women do more housework than menResearch has highlighted the creativity with which dual-earner couples combine work and family. The use of flexible work schedules and nontraditional work schedules allows dual-earner spouses to negotiate a tenuous balance addressing the needs of all family members by dividing labor. Research shows that men still tend to specialize in paid labor, although women are catching up.American women and men may send approximately the same amount of time per week working, but the kind of work they do differs.Men tend to be employed more hours than are women, while women tend to do more housework (almost twice as much)Compared to 1965, in the 21stcentury men do more than double the amount of housework per week, while women’s housework time has been cut almost in half.In dual earner couples and couples where one person is the breadwinner, women on average still do most of the housework (AKA the second shift)
Consequences include unequal division of household labor increases marital strain and can increase likelihood of divorce.Reasons: this is not because couples outright prefer women doing more; They are institutional constraints /lack of family friend work policies even though men and women would prefer egalitarianism under the ideal conditions – these institutional constraints prevent it.ii.Chapter 36 – Men’s Changing Contribution to Family Work - p.