The genetically influenced weight range for a

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the genetically influenced weight range for a individual; it is maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake o BMR and number of fat cells influence a set point Basal Metabolism Rate BMR o The rate at which the body burns calories for energy Genes: o Ob causes fat cells to secrete a protein called leptin o Leptin travels through the blood to the brain’s hypothalamus, which involved in appetite o Decreasing leptin levels can cause overeating o Ghrelin spurs appetite o Leptin reduces appetite Many people are overweight Environmental Influences on Weight: o Increased Abundance of Fast Food and Processed Foods o Widespread consumption of high sugar, high calorie soft drinks o The sharp decline in excerise and other expenditures of energy o Increased portion sizes of food and drink o The abundance of Highly varied foods Eating Disorders: o Bulimia An eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (bingeing) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging) o Anorexia: An eating disorder characterized by fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of good, and emaciation o Occur mainly in white females
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o Biological factors (genes), psychological factors (depression), cultural factors (some cultures don’t know these disorders exist), and individual habits (athletes, models) Motives to Love Passionate Love - intense emotions and sexual passion (dopamine increases) Companionate Love - affection and trust PET and fMRI have shown that different parts of the brain light up when they are active Oxytocin & Vasopressin o Both play a crucial role in the attachment-caregiving system Between mother and child as well as friends and such Endorphins o Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates o They are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory and are technically known as endogenous opioid peptides o fMRIs show difference in child love and partner love different parts of the brain Two strong predicaments of People: o Proximity Effect The people who are nearest to you geographically are most likely you be dearest to you o Similarity Effect Similarity - in looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality, and interests – is attractive to human beings; we tend to choose friends and loved ones who are most like us Dating websites use this Attachment Theory of Love o People’s attachments styles as adults derive in large part from how their parents cared for them o Three Different Attachment Styles: (exist through entire life) Secure 64% warm close relationships with their parents Avoidant 23% entirely negative terms about parents (cold and rejecting parents) resistant to change Anxious 11% ambivalence towards their parents (harsh and kind) Many gender difference when in comes to love o Motives of lover reflect social, economic, and cultural forces o Western societies, women often express love in words, where men do actions o Overall, sexes have become more alike in endorsing romantic love
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