DNA goes through transcription in the nucleus to produce RNA. RNA then goes through translation and leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm in the form of a protein. Transcription: the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA, and translation or the transfer of information from DNA to RNA Translation: the synthesis of protein under the direction of RNA or the use of information in RNA to make a polypeptide What is the relationship between codons and amino acids? Codons are a set of three nucleotides in RNA that code for amino acids.. Codons: the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of nonoverlapping three- base words 74
11. What does amino acid is coded by the mRNA sequence CAU? Hist What is the codon(s) for the amino acid valine (Val)? GUG, GUA GUC, GUU 12. In a few sentences that are your own, describe the process of transcription . Be sure to explain where it occurs in the eukaryotic cell, how it starts, what the enzyme does, and how it ends. Be sure to include these terms in your description: RNA polymerase, template strand, promoter, RNA nucleotides, terminator, and pre-RNA transcript. Transcription is the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA. Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is located inside the nucleus so the processes are separated both in location and time. Replication and transcription occur in the nucleus, while translation occurs in the cytoplasm. The promoter is the binding site for RNA polymerase, this marks the start of the gene. After the separation of the two DNA strands, one strand serves as a template for a new RNA molecule; the other DNA strand is unused. The transcription enzyme RNA polymerase moves along the gene, opening up the double helix and starts to synthesize RNA - forming a new RNA strand by following the base rules but remember in RNA U replaces T. A template strand is the term that refers to the strand used by RNA polymerase to attach complementary bases during RNA transcription A specific nucleotide sequence called a promoter acts as a binding site for RNA polymerase and determines where transcription starts. RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides until it reaches a sequence of DNA bases called the terminator, which signals the end of the gene. 75
15. How is transcription different from DNA replication? Transcription and DNA replication both involve making copies of the DNA in a cell. Transcription copies the DNA into RNA, while replication makes another copy of DNA. DNA Replication ________________________________ Transcription Template(s)? A template strand is the term that refers to the strand used by DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase to attach complementary bases during DNA replication Enzyme? DNA Polymerase RNA Polymerase Nucleotides incorporated? A-T, G-C A-U, G-C End result? 2 Strands of DNA RNA 16. What are the difference between a pre-mRNA and a mature mRNA? For example, (pre-mRNA) becomes a messenger RNA (mRNA) after processing . The first transcript from a protein coding gene is called a pre-mRNA
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- Daniels, J