17 i staffell m jansen a chase e cotton and c lewis

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17 I. Staffell, M. Jansen, A. Chase, E. Cotton and C. Lewis (2018). Energy Revolution: Global Outlook. Drax: Selby. 18 New Energy Outlook 2017. / Bloomberg New Energy Finance. 12% 2017 USA 2010 Globally 22% 28% 29% 9% Buildings Agriculture Industry Transport Electric and heat power sector Agriculture, forestry and other land use Industry Transport Other energy use Electric power sector Buildings 14% 10% 21% 24% 25% 6% Figure 5. The contribution of various industries to greenhouse gas emissions in the US (left side, 2017 data) and globally (right side, 2010 data) Canada 5% 6% Low Medium High the UK Germany China Japan India Australia South Africa Brazil Spain Italy 2% 25% 9% 29% 6% 10% 7% 12% 3% 12% 4% 6% 1% 3% 6% 18% 13% 30% 12% 25% The US 3% 9% Figure 6. Growth in the share of variable renewables in the electricity sectors of various countries in 2006-2016
11 The hydrogen economy – a path towards low carbon development According to a forecast by the International Energy Agency, by 2040 up to 20-35% of the world's electricity will be generated by solar and wind power plants. A forecast by Bloomberg New Energy Finance gives the figure of over 40%. In any case the share of renewable energy is pro- jected to increase manifold. Emerging steady demand for energy storage technologies is an impor- tant consequence of this development. This demand will compensate for output fluctuations - both short-term (second-to-second and hour- to-hour ) and long-term (time horizons of up to several months). Power grids deal with renewable energy intermittency by using backup power plants, cross-country and cross-regional power flows, demand side response technologies, forecasting of renewable energy genera- tion and traditional storage devices – hydroelectric pumped storage power plants, compressed air storage, and other sources which pro- vide flexibility 19 . These tools are still sufficient even given a short-term growth in the share of renewable energy in the energy mix up to 90% (recorded on March 9, 2019 in Germany) or 65% (recorded during a week in the spring of 2019 in Germany). However, in order to ensure the planned two fold increase in the average annual share of renewa- bles in Germany - up to 65% by 2030 - the available technologies will clearly have to be enhanced with new storage technologies. According to Wood Mackenzie Power & Renewables, the global market for energy storage systems could increase 13-fold from 2018 to 2024 - from 12 to 158 GWh, primarily due to the development of short-term storage de- vices installed, for example, in households. Hydrogen is one of the most efficient ways to create long-term energy storage. Only hydroelectric pumped storage power plants can compete with it. At present these make up more than 99% of the storage ca- pacity in the world. However, the potential for further growth in this sector is limited: HPPs can only be built at special sites suitable for lo- cating two reservoirs with a specific amount of pressure between them.

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