In the netherlands creed university of amsterdam

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In the Netherlands CREED (University of Amsterdam) provided help with auction design for WLL (December 1999), for UMTS (January 2000) and again for WLL (2002 and 2003). The Central Planning Bureau has provided advice on “auctions and pre-auctions: overbidding in spectrum auctions and its possible impact.” Poland has used consultancies in the past, but the information produced is not public. Portugal commissioned a number of studies in relation to auctions and beauty contests, including a market study carried out before the decision was made to hold a UMTS beauty contest, and a technical study on DVB-T before launching a beauty contest. In addition, technical experts from universities contributed to the technical evaluation of the proposals for the UMTS and DVB-T beauty contests. Sweden has not assigned licenses by means of auctions before 2005, since the only method allowed by the law (up until July 2003) was beauty contests. The new law from 2003 has given the Swedish regulator the right to use auctions, and Sweden investigated all aspects of using auctions, i.e. for what, where, how and why to use auctions. The first time an auction was tried in Sweden was within the 450MHz-band (replacing the NMT-450) in early 2005. A US-based consultancy supported OFCOM in Switzerland in the design of the auction of four UMTS licences, and in the elaboration of the auction rules. It provided and hosted the auction software. Turkey is working out an agreement on consultancy services with regard to authorisation of operators in general. This may encompass auctions and beauty contests. The United Kingdom has published advice, delivered by consultants, for the design of 28GHz BFWA auctions and that of the 3G auctions.
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ECC REPORT 65 Page 9 3.2 Reasons for hiring external consultancy Administrations seem to seek external advice more in the case of auctions than in the case of beauty contests. This seems to indicate that organizing and running an auction presents a higher degree of difficulty than preparing and holding a beauty contest. The variety of auction types, or even the variety of means to implement one particular type of auction, combined with the relative novelty of this assignment instrument as opposed to beauty contests, may be the reason for this situation. Precisely because of the novelty of auctions as an assignment instrument there may also be political reasons for seeking external advice from economists, academics and other auction experts. The fact that experts have been involved provides the NRA with a certain backing and enhanced credibility, which may reduce the risk for legal action from participants in an auction. It is interesting to note that one single administration, Switzerland, organized its first auction without any external advice, except for the development of the auction software. For the subsequent auction Switzerland hired a consultancy to provide advice on auction design and the corresponding software.
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