the fabricators recommendations with regard to the installation of the roof and

The fabricators recommendations with regard to the

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the fabricator's recommendations with regard to the installation of the roof and roof covering shall be followed. Timber buildings The following measures shall be taken for timber buildings: a) due to the relatively light weight of a timber building, extra precautions shall be taken to prevent uplift by ensuring that the entire structure is securely fas tened to the foundations; b) the spaces between the supporting columns or piers may be made up with block work in order in to reduce the uplift forces (see Figure 4-6 ); and c) walls shall be properly framed and diagonally braced in both directions at corners with horizontal braces or steel straps installed at the level of the top plate to provide rigidity of the corners (see Figures 4-7 and 4-8 ). Roofs A roof with a pitch of less than 20° (slope less than 36 %) is highly vulnerable to uplift forces. It is recommended that a pitch of 20° to 40° (slope of 36 % to 84 %) be used. The ability to reduce uplift forces is affected by the shape of the roof. The following roof types are listed in descending order of their effectiveness in reducing uplift forces: a) hip; b) gable; and c) shed Roof overhangs experience high local pres sures and, where possible, overhangs should be kept to a minimum of 900 mm or adequately strengthened. The main roof must be securely fixed to the ring beam and ridge beams. Details of various connections at roof level are given in Figures 4-9, and 4-10 and 4-11. Where buildings have covered patios or verandas, their roofs should be separate structures rather than extensions of the main building roof; the smaller roof can then be lost without endangering the integrity of the main roof.
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PCTTS 599: 20XX 14 Attention should be given to the location of fixings used for the roof cladding. It is necessary to pro- vide additional fixings at the roof edges and ridge, since high localised pressures are produced at these locations. Doors and windows Special attention shall be paid to the installation of doors and windows, since the loss of a door or window during a hurricane will greatly alter the inter nal pressure of the building, thus adversely affecting its integrity. For this reason, it is recommended that glazed windows and doors be fitted with shutters. 4.1.3 Flood hazard General All buildings and structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be constructed to minimize the effects of flooding. They shall be designed, connected and anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral movement due to loads and stresses from flooding. Susceptibility to flooding When a building is to be locate d on a flat, low-lying site, information shall be obtained with respect to the site's susceptibility to flooding. Figure 4-12 gives an indication of areas in Trinidad considered to be flood prone areas.
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