- Cones: allow us to see color and detail - Blind spot: no rods or cones at this point in the retina, where the optic nerve leaves the eye - Bipolar cells: neurons in the eye that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells - Ganglion cells: neurons in the eye whose axons form the optic nerve - Feature detectors: neurons in the sensory cortex that fire in response to specific features of sensory information such as lines or edges of objects - Top-down processing: use of contextual information or knowledge of a pattern in order to organize parts of the pattern - Bottom-up processing: organization of the parts of a pattern to recognize or form an image of the pattern they compose Color Vision: What physical attributes produce color? 1 - Wavelengths of light that reflect off an object/surface 2 – Visible spectrum has wavelengths associated with different colors - short wavelengths = blue - medium wavelengths = green
- long wavelengths = red - Flat reflectance curve associated w/achromatic colors (grey, black, white) - Selective reflection associated w/chromatic colors (green, yellow, red, blue) Color circle: - Hue: specific color perceived, e.g., red, blue, yellow - Complementary colors: descriptive of colors of the spectrum that when combined produce white or nearly white light – across from one another on color wheel (red-green, blue-yellow) Trichromatic theory of color vision: explains the first phase of color processing; the way the cones perform color processing 1 – Discovery of three types of cones 2 – Does not explain color in negative afterimages Opponent process theory of color vision: explains the second phase of color process; the way the information about wavelength from the cones is passed on to other neurons 1 – 3 pairs of opponent processes (blue-yellow, red-green, black-white) 2 – Explains color in negative afterimages Color deficiency: - Ishihara plates: used to test for color deficiency - Trichromat: a person with normal color vision - Monochromat: color blind; no functioning cones, rod vision only, low acuity - Dichromat: inability to distinguish certain colors from one another 1 – red-green color deficiency 2 – blue-yellow color deficiency Hearing: - Frequency (hertz): number of sound wave cycles per second - Amplitude (decibels): overall size of pressure change - Loudness: corresponds to amplitude of the sound wave - Pitch: corresponds to frequency of the sound wave Outer ear: - Ear drum: border between outer & middle ear Middle ear: - Ossicle: amplifies sound waves - hammer: closest to tympanic membrane - anvil - stirrups: closest to oval window & cochlea - Oval window: border between middle & inner ear
Inner ear: - Basilar membrane: base responds best to high frequencies and apex responds best to low frequencies - Hair cells: sensory neurons for hearing - Auditory nerve: transmits electrical impulses from hair cells to brain Perceptual Organization: Gestalt psychology – Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler - Similarity: similar things appear to be grouped together - Continuity: lines tend to be seen as continuous, even if they are interrupted
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- Classical Conditioning