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The CIO moved to the automobile industry and engaged in sit-down strike and prevented the importation of strikebreakers. It won victory when GM recognized it as a bargaining agency for workers.
The U.S. Steel Company prevented a strike by granting unionization rights to CIO employees. However, the Memorial Day massacre in Chicago shocked the public. In 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act set up minimum wage and maximum hours for interstate commerce industries. Labor by children under 16 was forbidden. Industrialists opposed, and among the excluded were blacks, Mexican Americans, and women.Labor unionization thrived under Roosevelt, as workers repaid him at the ballot box. The CIO broke away from the AF of L in 1938, and was changed to the Congress of Industrial Organization. It would gain millions of members, but still clashed with the AF of L.Landon Challenges “the Champ”For the election of 1936, the Democrats re-nominated Roosevelt due to the success of the New Deal. The Republicans chose Kansas governor Alfred M. Landon, whose platform condemned the New Deal. He was backed by Hoover. Landon lost by a landslide, and Democrats had the majority in Congress.Roosevelt won due to his appeal to the “forgotten man.” FDR also had given relief during his first term. He was powerful, enduring, and had the support of many new immigrants.Nine Old Men on the BenchRoosevelt was the first president to be sworn in on January 20, not March 4. This was created by the Twentieth Amendment, in order to eliminate the “lame duck” phase. FDR continued New Deal reforms, but the conservative Supreme Court stood in his way. The justices felt like it was their duty to curb the “socialistic” tendencies of the president. FDR wanted the Court to get inline with the new public opinion of democracy and reform.President Roosevelt shocked the country by asking Congress for the power to add a new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over seventy who would not retire. This would make a maximum membership of fifteen. He thought new blood was needed, but it was a mistake.The Court Changes CourseFDR was denounced for attempting to violate the checks and balances system. He accused of being a dictator and of taking away liberties. However, the court was generally moving toward liberalism and progressivism anyway. In 1937, they upheld progressive laws/acts and reversed previous decisions.Congress passed a court reform bill, but it only applied to lower courts. This was the first political defeat for FDR. He got his way anyhow, as the Court became friendlier to the New Deal. Many of the old justices died or retired, letting new ones take over. After this, however, fewer New Deal reforms were passed, and FDR lost much of his political goodwill.