PED 1323 Motor Control & Motor Learning

See gonyea wj marushia sa dixon ja 1981 morphological

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See: Gonyea WJ, Marushia SA, Dixon JA. (1981). Morphological organization and contractile properties of the wrist flexor muscles in the cat. Anat Rec. Mar;199(3):321-39 BUT proportions of fiber types within a muscle vary Large limb muscles 40-60% type I, in typical people IS EVERYBODY THE SAME? CAN YOU CHANGE YOUR % FIBER TYPES? Do genetics or training determine % fiber types? Endurance Exercise : increases the oxidative capacity of the trained fibers 1,2,6 . For low intensity aerobic training of typical people with approximately 50% type I fibers: very little activation of type II fibers ( see subsequent recruitment unit discussion) For intense endurance training with activation of type II fibers: increases % IIA &/or IIAB, and decreases % IIB fibers 3,5,6 , as IIB fibers change to express IIA myosin, and increase oxidative capacity greatly. (1-Taylor & Bachman, Can J Appl Physiol, 1999; 2-Hoppeler, Sportverletz Sportschaden, 1987; 3- Abernethy et al., Sport Med, 1990; 4- Saltin & Gollnick, Skeletal Muscle Adaptability. In Peachey (Ed.), Handbook of Physiol, Sec. 10: Skeletal Muscle. Am Physiol Soc. 1983; 5 - Campos et al., Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training
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Motor Control Section 1: The Stretch Shortening Cycle (a.k.a. plyometric movements) Unit 4: Motor Units zones. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 88, 50-60, 2002.; 6- Scott W. et al., Human skeletal muscle fiber type classifications. Phys Ther. 2001 Nov;81(11):1810-6 ) For intense endurance training: atrophy of type I 1,2, , IIa 4,5 or IIb 5 fibers may occur 3 . 1. Kraemer WJ, et al., Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol. 1995 Mar;78(3):976-89 2. Deschenes MR, Maresh CM, Crivello JF, Armstrong LE, Kraemer WJ, Covault J. The effects of exercise training of different intensities on neuromuscular junction morphology. J Neurocytol. 1993 Aug;22(8):603-15. 3. Terrados N, Melichna J, Sylvén C, Jansson E. Decrease in skeletal muscle myoglobin with intensive training in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1986 Dec;128(4):651-2. 4. Schantz P, Henriksson J, Jansson E. Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration. Clin Physiol. 1983 Apr;3(2):141-51. 5. Staron RS et al., Human skeletal muscle fiber type adaptability to various workloads. J Histochem Cytochem. 1984 Feb;32(2):146-52 OR , the endurance training does not need to be really intense to produce atrophy… Scott Trappe, et al., Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training J Appl Physiol September 1, 2006 101:721-727 13 weeks of run training in college students preparing for a marathon decreased muscle type I and IIa fiber size by ~20% (too low # of other fiber types to be examined) . Strength/power Exercise : increases the size of the trained fibers, all fibers trained in proper program. All fiber types hypertrophy 9,10,11,12 , hypertrophy greater in fast fibers 1,2,4,6,10,11,12 AND Increases % IIA 5,10,11,12 &/or IIAB 6,8 , and decreases, or complete loss of, % IIB fibers (1-Hakkinen, J Sport Med Physical Fit, 1989; 2-Tesch, Med Sci Sport Ex, 1988 Suppl; 4- Noble, Rice, Thayer, Taylor. Evolving Concepts of muscle Fibers.
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