for the immune system to work against its own body is referred to as autoimmunity (MedicineNet.com, 2014, p. 1). The antinuclear antibody test provides an indication of the likely existence of autoimmunity, and therefore; a signal for doctors to consider the likelihood of an autoimmune illness; such as lupus. Acquiring a baseline level on this lab along with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate will help physicians develop the appropriate plan of care for the person they are seeing. A urinalysis is a lab that may be ordered routinely during a physical examination to help diagnose a possible issue that may need addressing, such as evidence of diseases, even some that
ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE FIELD EXPERIENCE-TASK 2 12 have not caused significant signs or symptoms (MedicineNet.com, 2014, p. 1). Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose the progression of some chronic conditions such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus, to screen for urinary tract or kidney infection, and even evaluate the causes of kidney failure (MedicineNet.com, 2014, p. 1) . With either a family history of depression or a person having depressive symptoms, a primary care physician may find it judicious to obtain a 25-hydroxy vitamin D level. In multiple studies it has been shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with symptoms of depression. Underlying causes of vitamin D deficiency, such as decreased sun exposure as a result of lack of sunlight from the area we live in, lack of outdoor activities, the clothing we wear, or the deficiency of vitamin intake from the diet we eat, may lead to depression (Hoogendijk et al., 2008). 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels are highly treatable, which may facilitate the prevention of depression or at least minimize the symptoms with the conjunction of other treatment (Hoogendijk et al., 2008). When oral medication for acid reflux no longer brings robust relief a person’s doctor may order further diagnostic tests to check for other problems (WebMD, 2012, p. 1). One of the diagnostic tests is a barium swallow that can be done to check for ulcers or a narrowing of the esophagus (WebMD, 2012, p. 1). Also, having an endoscopy can check for problems in the esophagus or stomach (WebMD, 2012, p. 1). Obtaining a barium swallow or endoscopy can help diagnose other common problems causing acid reflux type symptoms, such as ulcers, inflammation, or cancers of the stomach or duodenum (MedicineNet.com, 2013, p. 6). Additional investigation with either allergy skin testing or serum-specific IgE antibody testing maybe indicative, for better treatment options, when a person’s seasonal allergies can no longer be controlled with oral medications. Allergy skin testing is considered the most sensitive
ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE FIELD EXPERIENCE-TASK 2 13 testing method and provides rapid results; pricking the skin with the extract of a specific allergen, then observing the skin’s reaction ("Managing allergies," 2011, p. 20). Serum-specific IgE antibody testing is blood testing providing similar information to allergy skin testing ("Managing allergies," 2011, p. 20).
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