ISS_225_Lec_7_Politial_Science

1 the veto power 2 agenda setting state of the union

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1. The veto power 2. Agenda Setting (state of the union, budget) 3. Lobbying 4. Party Leadership 5. Public Support C. Chief Diplomat 10
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ISS 225 – Power, Authority, Exchange Politics/Government The president has the leading role in American foreign policy. The Constitution gives the president the following powers as chief diplomat: 1. Extends (or terminate) diplomatic recognition to foreign government. 2. Negotiate treaties with other nations (Senate must approve treaties by a two-thirds vote). 3. Negotiate executive agreements with heads of foreign governments. These do not require Senate approval. The president is usually seen as the leader of the Western world and has a great deal of influence on international affairs, even extending to relations between other nations not directly involving the United States. Negotiate peace between two countries – Carter, Middle East. D. Commander-in-chief The founding fathers wanted ultimate civilian control of the military, thus established the president as the commander in chief of the armed forces. Today the president commands almost 1.5 million men and women and is in charge of a vast nuclear arsenal. Constitutionally, only Congress can declare war and appropriate funds for the military. However, as commander in chief, the president can commit U.S. troops into combat without congressional approval, which of course he has done many times including Korea and Vietnam. V. Congressional Power The framers of the Constitution saw Congress as the center of policy-making in the federal government. Congress has off and on appeared to be the true center of power and the focus of most controversy. The primary role of Congress is, of course, to pass legislation (laws). A. Domestic affairs 11
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ISS 225 – Power, Authority, Exchange Politics/Government Congress is much more influential in domestic matters than in foreign matters. They often question, change, and reject presidential proposals in the domestic area. B. Foreign affairs In foreign affairs, Congress is much more likely to follow the president’s lead. In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution which required presidents to consult with Congress, whenever possible, prior to using military force, and mandated the withdrawal of forces after sixty days unless Congress declared war or granted an extension. Congress could at any time pass a concurrent resolution ending American participation in hostilities. Presidents have largely ignored the War Powers Resolution as unconstitutional (violates separation of powers). Although Bush did consult with Congress prior to the Iraq War and Clinton consulted prior to Bosnia. C. Power in Congress Real power in Congress lies in the leadership and the committees. Congress is organized along political party lines. The leaders of Congress are always from the majority party. House: Speaker of the House and Majority leader, Senate: Majority leader. These leaders can affect the agenda of Congress by deciding what bills will be considered when and what committees a bill will go to. Committees are where the real work of Congress takes place. Committees control the agenda and guide legislation. The committees debate the bill, change it, write amendments to it, and may kill it. The majority party dominates committees and the committee head is always a member of the majority party.
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