E when either the antecedent is false or the

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are the conditions under which a conditional is true i.e. when either the antecedent is false or the consequent true. In these circumstances. Denying of the dysjuncts (q) justifies one to affirm the other distinct (p). such inference is valid by the rule of disjunctive syllogism (Ds). 8.3.2 INFORMAL FALLACIES Informal fallacies cannot be identified by mere inspection of the argument form, but by analyzing the content of the argument. Informal fallacies can be divided into two namely, fallacies of i. Relevance/irrelevance ii. Ambiguity iii. Fallacies of Relevance/irrelevance These are errors in reasoning which have as their source the irrelevance of the conclusion to the premis(es). The error or mistake thus rests on the relevance of the conclusion to the premis(es) hence their description as fallacies of relevance or irrelevance depending on the explanation given with regard to the error. Examples of these fallacies are: (a) Appeal to the people or masses (argumentum ad populum) If numbers are quoted as evidence or justification for a certain position or conclusion, the fallacies is said to have been committed. For example, if someone is to argue that abortion, corruption, theft or murder is wrong because most people think that it is wrong, this would be an instance of this fallacy. The point to note is that the truth of falsity of something does not depend on people's opinions or feelings, rather other objective facts. The majority could
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believe that something is right or wrong yet all be mistaken. Question of truth and falsity, rightness or wrongs are not settled by conducting opinion polls, rather they are settled by appeal or consideration of relevant facts. (b) Appeal to Authority (argumentum ad verecundiam) This fallacy is said to have been committed when one accepts a statement view or position merely because an authority, expert, or a famous person accepts it or says he/she accepts it. The truth of falsity of a given statement cannot be proved merely by the fact that someone, even an authority says so. A statement is not made true or false by virtue of the prestige of an authority, rather, it is the citing of relevant and accurate evidence to confirm or refute the statement. The fact than an authority has made a statement cannot be itself regarded as evidence; it is the facts which the authority produces that constitute evidence. Such facts of course are quite different from a mere verbal pronouncement e.g. Killing is bad or stealing is bad not merely because God or the law says so, rather because of the objective and cogent facts and evidence that points reasonably or necessarily to the badness or goodness, rightness or wrong's of the actions. Killing is bad for instance, presumably because of some good reasons which form the basis of God or the law holding that it is bad not merely because Gor or the law says so. Appeal to authority rests on trust and confidence rested in authority (which is reasonable), but authority is fallible and its only on the basis of the evidence presented that we should accept the position of the authority not the mere fact of authority.
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