Investment in civil society creates empowerment among

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Investment in civil society creates empowerment among the people Social Capital: - Network of relations between people within a society that make the society function effectively → social interactions with benefits - Bottom up solution, relations based on trust and expectations - More trust, greater trust in democracy - Productive assets in social terms (norms, institutions, cooperation) - Adopted by neoliberalism → state has a reduced role, up to the people - High degrees of social capital are useful during emergencies - Santo Domingo (Hurricane George) example → neighbours helping each other out, churches providing housing, communities cleaning up debris - Can produce positive change but puts all the blame/responsibility on the individual and their relationships to support themselves - Ignoring the state pressures the social relations NGOs: - Non-governmental organizations - institutions that provide services to create change, specifically in regard to humanitarian need and policy-monitoring - Seen as the solution to all of development’s issues - Reacts quickly to problems, knows what’s happening in the field due to accessibility - Good for nonmaterial parts of development - Gives people a voice to determine their own lives - Look at location, level of operation, orientation, ownership - Seen as key for the promotion of democracy - Provide opportunities for people to have a say - Work with poor and marginalized people
- Provide a check to state power - Limitations - Seen as agents of neoliberalism - States can feel threatened by them - Reality for one is not reality for all - Might want to pursue own agenda - Puts out opinions against state politics which undermines the state’s political agenda State: - What is the state? - Why do some parts of the developing world have more ineffective states than others?
- Geographical conditions - Large body of work that says all of development is determined by geography - Africa → arid, hot conditions can only sustain small communities - Economic resources - Agricultural and land use has main role in development - Can be a bad thing - lootable resources create conflict - Legacies of colonialism - Created a power vacuum - Positive results → strong state in Korea is due to Japanese colonialism (brought institutions) - Mostly negative results → neocolonialism - Economic growth in the state - 2 schools of thought

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