Module 9-Introduction to Bioethics.docx

One conundrum that must be resolved of course is in

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social injustice with respect to poverty, disease or even hunger. One conundrum that must be resolved, of course, is in terms of the profit motivations in people who control and manipulate the economy and all attendant structures including healthcare. In some places, universal coverage of the health system is in place while in most underdeveloped economies, medicines and treatment continue to be an important barrier to wellness. In the Philippines the provision of free antiretroviral treatment by the Department of Health to HIV infected individuals is a continuing concern as the country faces moribund epidemiology on the top ten communicable but preventable diseases. Ethical dilemmas will put an individual where he is compelled to choose between two sets of actions that will affect the welfare of an individual. Using the four principles of bioethics, one may be able to identify the ethical dimensions or questions in a given situation, this often described by ethicists as moral sensitivity, keeps an individual from simply glossing over the surface of a question thus missing its ethical implications. Fortunately, one can develop this skill with sustained practice. Such a capability starts with the development of what is known as ethical imagination, enabling him to distinguish scientific, ethical, legal, or even personal questions. The individual, for example knows that before government embarks on a dengue vaccination program the efficacy of the vaccine must be determined a scientific question, from the need to secure informed consent which is an ethical question. Sometimes, it may not be possible to 6
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gather all the relevant facts and one can either do some more research or deal with the facts on hand. It is important to initially reflect on the range of individuals or groups that may be affected by the decision- the stakeholders. Oftentimes, it is not possible to protect the interest of everyone and one will have to prioritize and to provide a justification to favor the interest of one over another. This justification often rests by taking the core ethical consideration (respect for persons, minimizing harm while maximizing benefits and justice. Once all these are considered a decision or a recommendation may be made. Sound ethical reasoning demand that the recommendations or decisions are explained or justified . A decision is said to be supported by a strong justification when: 1. there exists a high degree of relevance to the ethical question 2. there is reference to the most relevant scientific or social facts 3. there is a description of potential effects of a decision on others 4. there is an identification of the relevant core ethical considerations 5. there is an analysis of the ways by which the recommendation addresses the core ethical considerations and the strength or weaknesses of other solutions and 6. there is logical reasoning that follows from the reasons given.
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  • Spring '10
  • Johnson
  • Ethics , Beauchamp

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