Amritsar Massacre: English kill all peaceful gatherers in a square. Indians want English out immediately.
Gandhi holds the Salt March Satyagraha: English attack, cameras around, World sees atrocities. Influences Jawaharlal Nehru (even though they agree on form of gov’t), Nehru becomes first Prime Minister. Mustafa Kemal –Leader of the Young Turks. Nationalist group that creates its own army, kicks Greeks out of islands, take out Sultan, and creates a modernized Turkey. Introduces Roman alphabet, gives people Western family names, state capitalism, abolishes the Islamic law codes, establishes Swiss law codes, does away with fez, place of women changes: can vote, don’t have to wear veil, can run for office, equal education rightsMao Zedong – Led the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China. Strengthens China after falling to higher powers earlier on. Industrialized China. Led mass killings of opponents and suspected people. Balfour Declaration – Was a declaration made by the British after WWI that broke up Ottoman Empire. British favored a Zionist plan to establish a Jewish Palestine. However, these groups could not do anything that would prejudice preexisting groups in the area. Arabs opposed this idea. Theodore Herzl – Austro-Hungarian Jew that founded modern political Zionism. Interested by the Dreyfuss Affair. Tried to work toward a Zionist country in Palestine. Benito Mussolini – Fascist leader in Italy. He was an opportunist. Moves into Rome in Oct. 1922 with Black Shirts to take over. He forms his own gov’t and becomes Prime Minister. He cuts out free speech and shuts down the newspapers. Becomes the dictator of Italy. Leader of Italy during WWII. Invades Ethiopia to show Italy’s strength- barely wins. Invades Greece without letting Hitler know and Hitler must send troops to help. Pivotal in WWII since German soldiers from the Russian front had to be sent to Greece to help.Adolf Hitler – 1889-1945. Austrian. Was a runner in WWI. Was used as a spy to check up on right wing parties. Creates DAP (Nazi) His “Brown shirts” were his soldiers. Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. Came to power through the Great Depression. Becomes the chancellor. Reichstag Fire (1933) a Dutch student sets fire to a parliament building so Hitler asks for martial law. He prohibits Jews and Germans marrying and makes Jews wear yellow star. Seen as a hero before WWII for opposing Treaty of Versailles. He strengthens military and moves troops into demilitarized Rhineland. Social Darwinist. Committed suicide in a bunker toward the end of WWII.Spanish Civil War – Hitler wants to test weapons so he destroys the Spanish town of Guernica. Hitler wanted war in Spain to bring a dictator, Francisco Franco, to power. Germany and Italy both provide support to bring Franco to power. 1936-1939Maginot Line – Fortified line by the French from Switzerland to Belgium. It didn’t work because the Germans can still get into France through Belgium and the Ardennes Forest. However, once Germany invaded