Ning but none of them are found similarbetter

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ning, but none of them are found similar/better spinning performance in all respect compared to traditional jute batching oil (Basu et al. 2009 ). In spite of different spinning problems with other than jute batching oil, some of the jute industries are using RBO in export products especially in the area of food grain packaging to eliminate the carcinogenic component contamination during food grain packaging. According to the Jute Packaging Norms and Legal Protection to Jute Cultivators the Parliament of India had enacted the JPM (Jute Packaging Mandatory) Act 1987 with an objective to protect the jute industry (Anonymous 2016c ). As per this act, the food grain and sugar produced are reserved and mandatorily packed in jute bags manufactured every year. The Government of India recently found that the jute industry could not match demands in 2011 2012 for supply of 13 lakh bales or 4.33 Table 4 Export trend of JDPs from India (Anonymous 2016d ) Products 2010 11 2011 12 2012 13 2013 14 2014 15 Floor coverings 1342 1420 1790 2161 2389 Carry bags 1264 1637 1697 2448 2518 Other JDPs 91 142 158 230 179 Total 2697 3199 3636 4839 5086 Sustainability in Jute-based Industries 143
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lakh tons of gunny bags for Rabi crop supply of 2012 2013. Government said that with 10 mills remaining closed, the jute industry is short in capacity by 1.5 lakh ton. Presently, it can produce 11 lakh tons of jute sacks/gunny bags. Its installed capacity, however, is 15.02 lakh tons, and assuming a 83 % utilization, its stated capacity is 12.47 lakh tons. The industry earns a business of around Rs. 10,000 crore by selling its entire produce to FCI (Food Corporation of India), sugar mills, and co-operatives in the Indian market apart from the export. FCI makes a bulk purchase of almost 35 40 % of jute mills produce. In 2012 2013, FCI is expected to purchase 6.34 lakh tons and 4.33 lakh jute/gunny bags (Anonymous 2016c ). Apart from the above problems, in India, jute industry suffers lot from different political interference, labour problem, jute mills owner are mostly headed by business community rather than entrepreneurs, and shortage of jute fi bre supply due to low rainfall, which also lead against the sustainability of the jute industry (Kundu et al. 1959 ). 3 Sustainability: Diversi fi cation of Product and Process Jute is also known as the golden fi bre , a plant that produces a fi bre mainly used for sacking and cordage and carpet backing (Anonymous 2016b ). This raw material is used for sacks globally which is one of the most versatile fi bres of nature. Still jute is cheaper and plays an important among all textile fi bres next to cotton. The jute mills are integrated units consisting of both spinning and weaving units. The main products of jute industry are gunny bags, canvas, pack sheets, cotton jute, paper-lined hessians, hessian cloth, carpets, carpet backings, rugs, cordage and twines. The Indian jute industry has been expanding really fast, spanning from a wide range of lifestyle consumer products, with courtesy to the versatility of jute. By the innovative ways of bleaching, dyeing, and fi nished goods processes, the jute industry now provides fi nished jute products that are softer and have lustre with aesthetic appeal. Today, jute has been de
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